Лекция: A. Code. Developed in 1965 at Dartmouth College in the United States for use by students who require a simple language to begin programming.
С developed in the 1970s to support the UNIX operating system. С is a highly portable general-purpose language.
Other such languages are APL (developed in 1962), PASCAL (named after Blaise Pascal and developed in 1971), and LISP and PROLOG, both of which are used for work in artificial intelligence. LOGO is a development of LISP which has been used to develop computer-based training (CBT) packages.
When a program written in one of these high-level languages is designed to do a specific type of work such as calculate a company's payroll or calculate the stress factor on a roof, it is called an applications program. Institutions either purchase these programs as packages or commission their own programmers to write them to meet the specifications of the users.
The program produced after the source program has been converted into machine code is referred to as an object program or object module. This is done by a computer program called the compiler, which is unique for each computer. Consequently, a computer needs its own compiler for the
various high-level languages if it is expected to accept programs written in those languages. For example, in order that an IBM RS/6000 may process a program in FORTRAN, it needs to have a compiler that would understand that particular model and the FORTRAN language as well.
The compiler is a systems program which may be written in any language, but the computer's operating system is a true systems program which controls the central processing unit (CPU), the input, the output, and the secondary memory devices. Another systems program is the linkage editor, which fetches required systems routines and links them to the object module (the source program in machine code). The resulting program is then called the load module, which is the program directly executable by the computer. Although systems programs are part of the software, they are usually provided by the manufacturer of the machine.
Unlike systems programs, software packages are sold by various vendors and not necessarily by the computer manufacturer. They are a set of programs designed to perform certain applications which conform to the particular specifications of the user. Payroll is an example of such a package which allows the user to input data — hours worked, pay rates, special deductions, names of employees — and get salary calculations as output. These packages are coded in machine language (Os and Is) on magnetic tapes or disks which can be purchased, leased, or rented by users who choose the package that most closely corresponds tо their needs.