Лекция: Types of OS

The three most common operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X, and Linux.

Microsoft Windows. Microsoft created the Windows OS in the mid-1980s. Over the years, there have been many different versions of Windows, but the most recent ones are Windows 8 (released in 2012), Windows 7(2009), and Windows Vista (2007). Windows comes preloaded on most new PCs, which helps to make it the most popular operating system in the world. Windows dominates the PC world, running, by some estimates, on 90 % of all PCs. The remaining 10% are mostly Macintosh computers. Like the Macintosh operating environment, Windows provides a GUI, virtual memory management, multi-tasking and support for many peripheral devices.

Mac OS is a line of operating systems created by Apple. It comes preloaded on all new Macintosh computers, or Macs. All of the recent versions are known as OS X(pronounced O-S Ten), and the specific versions include Yosemite(released in 2014), Mavericks (2013), Mountain Lion (2012), Lion (2011), and Snow Leopard (2009). Apple also offers a version called Mac OS X Server, which is designed to be run on servers. Mac OS X users account for 9.5% of the operating systems market as of September 2014 – much lower than the percentage of Windows users (almost 90%). One reason for this is that Apple computers tend to be more expensive. However, many people prefer the look and feel of Mac OS X.

Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a family of open-source operating systems, which means they can be modified and distributed by anyone around the world. This is different from proprietary software like Windows, which can only be modified by the company that owns it (Microsoft). The advantages of Linux are that it is free, and there are many different distributions – or versions – you can choose from. Each distribution has a different look and feel, and the most popular ones include Ubuntu,Mint,andFedora. Linux is named afterLinus Torvalds, who created the Linux kernel in 1991. The kernel is the computer code that is the central part of an operating system. Linux users account for less than 2% of the operating systems market as of September 2014. However, most servers run Linux because it’s relatively easy to customize.

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