Лекция: A) Choose the correct word. (b) Give synonyms to the underlined words


A domain name (1) locates/specifies an organization or other entity on the Internet. For example, the domain name www.totalbaseball.com (1) locates/specifies an Internet address for «totalbaseball.com» at Internet (2) server/point and a particular (3) domain/host server named «www». The «com» part of the domain name reflects the purpose of the organization or entity (in this example, «commercial») and is called the top-level domain name. The «totalbaseball» part of the domain name defines the organization or entity and together with the top-level is called the second-level domain name. The second-level domain name maps to and can be thought of as the «readable» version of the Internet address.

A third level can be defined to (4) identify/show a particular host server at the Internet address. In our example, «www» is the name of the server that handles Internet (5) traffic/requests. (A second server might be called «www2».) A third level of domain name is not required. For example, the fully-qualified domain name could have been «totalbaseball.com» and the server assumed.

Subdomain levels can also be used. For example, you could have «www.nyyankees.totalbaseball.com». Together, «www.totalbaseball.com» constitutes a fully-qualified domain name.

Second-level domain names must be (6) common/unique on the Internet and registered with one of the ICANN-accredited registrars for the COM, NET, and ORG top-level domains. Where (7) appropriate/assumed, a top-level domain name can be geographic. (Currently, most non-U.S. domain names use a top-level domain name based on the country the server is in.)

On the Web, the domain name is that part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that tells a domain name server using the domain name system (DNS) whether and where to (8) reroute/forward a request for a Web page. The domain name is mapped to an IP address (which represents a physical point on the Internet).

More than one domain name can be mapped to the same Internet address. This allows (9) multiple/special individuals, businesses, and organizations to have (10) unique/separate Internet identities while sharing the same Internet server.

It may be worth noting that the domain name system (11) contains/combines an even higher level of domain than the top-level domain. The highest level is the root domain, which would be represented by a single dot (just as in many hierarchical file systems, a root directory is represented by a "/" ) if it were ever used. If the dot for the root domain were shown in the URL, it would be to the right of the top-level domain name. However, the dot is (12) assumed/appropriate to be there, but never shown.


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