Лекция: Final remark


15. With all its achievements and shortcomings, the UN remains an indispensable part of the global community of the early twenty-first century. If it suddenly disappeared millions of people around the world would soon be worse off. That, alone, is sufficient cause for upholding and supporting the UN.

16. The UN cannot and should not be expected to offer solutions to all of the world’s ills. It does much good humanitarian work and often provides ways of easing tension and solving crises. It often enables people stuck in poverty to improve their lot. The UN is hardly perfect. But it remains an indispensable organization even as its behavior and effectiveness is in constant need of improvement.

Box 2. “Generations” of peace operations UN peacekeeping operations have greatly evolved in their purpose and complexity over the years. Observers thus like to divide them into three or four groups, usually referred to as “generations”. The generations can roughly be defined as follows:   First Generation peacekeeping (or traditional peacekeeping) refers to operations aimed at creating a physical barrier between two warring parties – both of them internationally recognized states — that have given their consent to peacekeepers’ presence. The classic example of this type of an operation is the role of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) after the 1956 Suez crisis.   Second Generation peacekeeping (or peacebuilding) refers to the implementation of complex, multidimensional peace agreements, mostly in the aftermath of civil wars. Again the consent of the various parties is required, but they are usually not both states. In addition to traditional military functions, peacekeeepers play a role in various police and civilian functions. The goal is the long-term settlement of the underlying conflict. Examples of this type of operations include Namibia in 1989-90 and Cambodia in 1991-93.   Third Generation peacekeeping is often referred to as peace enforcement. These activities include low-level military operations, enforcing cease-fires, and rebuilding “failed states”.   Forth Generation peacekeeping (rarely called such) refers to delegated peacebuilding when, for example, the UN subcontracts various peacebuilding and peacekeeping tasks to, say, regional organizations. Perhaps the best known example of this is NATO’s role in Bosnia from the mid-1990s on.
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