Лекция: Nose alveolar ridge palate
The soft palate /sPft 'pxlqt/ can be touched by the tongue. It can move: it can be raised so that it touches the back wall of the pharynx and this stops the breath from going up into the nasal cavity and forces it to go into the mouth only. In its lowered position, the soft palate allows the breath to pass out through the nose. This is the normal position of the soft palate when we are not speaking but breathing quietly with our mouth closed. It ends in a point called the uvula /'jHvjVlq/.
The hard palateis often called the ‘roof of the mouth’. It is the highest part of the palate, between the soft palate and the alveolar ridge. You can feel its smooth curved surface with your tongue. It is fixed in its position.
The alveolar ridge/xl'vIqlq rIG/ (or the teethridge/'tJTrIG/) is between the top front teeth and the hard palate. You can feel its shape with your tongue. Its surface is rather rough and is covered with little ridges.
The tongue/tAN/ is, of course, the most important organ of speech and it can be moved into many different places and different shapes. It is usual to divide the tongue into several parts: tip, blade, front, back, sides.The back of the tongue lies under the soft palate when the tongue is at rest.; the front lies under the hard palate; the tip and the blade lie under the alveolar ridge, the tip being the most forward part of all and the blade between the tip and the front. The tip and the blade are very mobile. The front can be flat or it can be raised to the hard palate. The back of the tongue too can be flat or it can be raised to touch the soft palate. The sides of the tongue may be either curved upwards to meet the sides of the palate or left flat.
The teeth (upper and lower). The lower teeth are not important in speech except that if they are missing certain sounds will be difficult to make. But the upper front teeth are used in English to some extent.
The lips (upper and lower) are important in speech. They can take up different positions. They can be pressed together (when we produce sounds [p, b], brought into contact with the teeth (as in [f, v]), or rounded (for vowels like [H]).