Лекция: THE RUSSIAN FEDERALISM
The Russian Federation, the largest republic in the former Soviet Union is being transformed into new political, social and economic formation. According to a new Constitution adopted in 1993, Russia is a democratic federal state with a republican form of government.
The Federal Structure. The Russian Federation consists of 21 republics, 6 territories, 49 regions, 2 cities of federal importance, one autonomous region and 9 areas — equal subjects of the Russian Federation (89 subjects altogether).
The state power in the Russian Federation is exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial power. The state power is exercised by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federal assembly (the Council of Federation and the State Duma), the Government of the Russian Federation, and the Courts of the Russian Federation.
The President of the Russian Federation is the head of the state, who is elected for four years by citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of universal, equal, direct suffrage by secret ballot.
The Federal Assembly. The parliament is the representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation. The Federal Assembly consists of two chambers — the Council of the Federation and the State Duma. The Council of Federation includes two representatives from each subject of the Russian Federation: one from the legislative and one from the executive body of state authority. The State Duma consists of 450 deputies and is elected for a term of four years.
The Government of the Russian Federation. The executive power in Russia is exercised by the Government of the Russian Federation. The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairman of the Government, Deputy Chairmen and federal ministers.
The Judicial Power is exercised by means of constitutional, civil, administrative and criminal proceedings. The judicial system of the Russian Federation is instituted by the Constitution and the federal constitution law.
The Constitution Court of the Russian Federation consists of 19 judges and resolves disputes on jurisdiction matters between the bodies of state authority of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is the supreme judicial body for civil, criminal, administrative and other cases under the jurisdiction of common courts.
The Higher Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is the supreme judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases examined by courts of arbitration.
The judges of the Constitution Court, the Supreme Court, the Higher Arbitration Court are appointed by the Council of the Federation upon the proposals by the President of the Russian Federation.
Local self-government in the Russian Federation shall insure the independent solution by the population of the issues of local importance.
Local self-government shall be administered in urban and rural settlements and other areas with consideration of the historical and other local traditions. The structure of local self-government bodies shall be determined by the population independently.