Cybercrime contains all criminal offences which are committed with the aid of communication devices in a network. This can be the Internet, the telephone line or the mobile network. An international legal definition of cybercrime that is used by most of the countries in Europe and North America as well as South Africa and Japan was agreed to in the Convention on Cybercrime which came into force on 1 July 2004. Although the term cybercrime is usually restricted to describing criminal activities in which the computer or network is an essential part of the crime, the term is also used to include traditional crimes in which computers or networks are used to enable illicit activities. These include the breach of computer security and unauthorized access to a computer, known as hacking. There is also distribution of illegally obtained content, spamming (sending of unsolicited emails which often sell fake goods or illegal services simultaneously to thousands or even millions of people), copyright crimes, virus writing and virus spreading.

Some cybercrime may influence your business. There is cyberfraud, such as pharming, where users are moved to fake, non-genuine sites, when they try to link to their bona fide (personal, confidential) bank website. Then there is phishing, when a fraudster, by misrepresentation (making a wrong statement to trick someone into a contact) gets Internet users to disclose personal information in reply to spam email. Internet users can also be tricked into money laundering activities which aid the transfer of illegal or stolen money.

There are cybercrimes that may affect you personally, such as credit card fraud on line (credit card scams), and identity theft, when financial benefit is obtained by deception using stolen personal information.

The first cases of cybercrime were reported in 1950s. Studies of 4000 crimes during the past 30 years established that computers had been used for most kinds of crime – including fraud, theft, blackmail, larceny, embezzlement, burglary, sabotage, industrial and economic espionage, conspiracy, illegal gambling, distribution of pornography, murder, extortion, and forgery.

There are no comprehensive statistics about the extent of cybercrime. Victims often resist reporting suspected cases because they may lose more from the embarrassment, lost reputation, litigation, and other consequential losses than from the acts themselves. Evidence indicates, however, that the number of cases is rising each year.


Упражнение 10. Прочтите текст В, пользуясь словарем.


Упражнение 11. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.


1. What is the definition of cybercrime?

2. When did the Convention on Cybercrime come into force?

3. What is hacking?

4. What is spamming?

5. What is pharming?

6. What is phishing?

7. What other types of cybercrime do you know?

8. How can cybercrime influence your business?

9. How can cybercrime affect you personally?

10. When were the first cases of cybercrime reported?

11. What kind of crimes have computers been used for?

12. Why are there no comprehensive statistics about the extent of cybercrime?


Упражнение 12. Выпишите из текста названия всех правонарушений (преступлений), совершаемых с использованием киберпространства.


Упражнение 13. Закончите следующие предложения.


1. Cybercrime contains ….

2. An international legal definition of cybercrime was agreed to ….

3. The Convention came into force ….

4. This definition is used by….

5. Hacking is known as….

6. Spamming is known as….

7. Pharming is known as….

8. Phishing is known as….

9. Money laundering activities aid….

10. The cybercrimes that may influence your business are….

11. The cybercrimes that that may affect you personally are….

12. As the studies show computers have been used for most kinds of crime – including….

13. Victims of cybercrime often resist reporting suspected cases because….


Упражнение 14. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.


1. Полагают, что киберпреступники действуют с территории Украины.

2. Взлом компьютера и несанкционированный доступ к информации являются незаконными.

3. Интерпол оказал огромную помощь в расследовании этого мошенничества в киберпространстве.

4. Мошенники, совершившие кражу персональных данных, преследуются в уголовном порядке.

5. Преступники использовали систему рассылки спама.

6. Главари преступных групп вовлекают в незаконную деятельность молодых, талантливых хакеров с помощью шантажа.

7. Если вы не используете антивирусные программы, ваш компьютер может быть заражен вирусом.

8. Полиция установила, что сайт был атакован хакерами.

9. Защитные программы помогают уберечь компьютеры от вирусов и защитить информацию.

10. По компьютерным каналам куда угодно могут проникать порнография и расистская литература.

11. Многие озабочены вопросами защиты авторских прав и интеллектуальной собственности.

12. Организованная преступность использует новые технологии связи.


Упражнение 15. Обсудите в группе следующие вопросы.


1. Has your computer ever been infected by virus?

2. Which organizations can you inform if you are a victim of a crime on the Internet?

3. How can people protect themselves from phishing and pharming?

4. Are cyberspace frauds any different from frauds committed through more traditional communication channels (mail, television)?


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