Лекция: Oil and Gas Fields Development
1) Oil and gas field development is a complex work consisting in drilling of the field and lifting of oil and gas to the surface.
3) Oil fields are developed in accordance with special development projects based on the natural conditions of the well.
4) One of the most important problem in the development projects consists in the optimal spacing of the production wells, which is dictated by the geological conditions of the field and is based on hydrodynamic and economical calculations.
7) When developing an oil field two interrelated processes occur: flow of oil and gas through porous rock of the stratum and lifting of the oil and gas to the surface.
8) The methods of lifting the oil to the surface are called the methods of well exploitation. All known methods of oil well exploitation can be classified into two basic groups: exploitation of a flowing well and mechanical exploitation.
In flowing wells the fluid (oil and gas) is lifted to the surface by the natural formational pressure. In mechanical oil wells the fluid is lifted be various engineering equipment located directly in the well, for example, by means of air-gas lifts and subsurface pumps. In air-gas lift wells the oil is lifted by injecting a compressed gas or air into the well. Injection of gas and water into the well is the best method of maintaining the formational pressure, ensuring high rates, of oil production. In Russia more than 70 per cent of oil produced using this method.
Water is pumped into special injection wells are drilled in accordance with the given system of oil field development. Injection of water into the wells is called also water flooding. In the Soviet Union edge water flooding was first used on a large scale in developing the Tuymazin oil field.
Artificial maintenance of the formational pressure made it possible to increase the distance between production wells, the result of which is a smaller number of wells and a out in oil field expenditure.
The experience gained in operating the Tuymasyn oil field has been used in all large oil fields of the Ural-Volga oil area. The system of development introduced at the Romashkin oil field (USSR) made it possible to increase oil production in a short period of time and save large sums of money due to the reduction of well drilling work and the cost of the equipment.
11. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. What is meant by oil and gas field development? 2. What are special development projects based on? 3. What does one of the most important problems in the development projects consist in? 4. How can all known methods of well exploitation be classified? 5. In the Soviet Union more than 70% of oil is produced using the injection of gas and water into the well, isn’t it? 6. Where was edge water flooding first used in the Soviet Union? 7. What did artificial maintenance of the formational pressure make it possible? 8. Due to what was it possible to increase oil production in a short period of time?
12. Подберите из правой колонки правильный перевод английских слов и словосочетаний:
1) In accordance with — 1) нагнетательная скважина
2) exploratory drilling — 2) добыча нефти
3) well exploitation — 3) разработка нефтяного месторождения
4) flowing well — 4) эксплутационная скважина
5) formational pressure — 5) в соответствии с
6) injection well — 6) эксплуатация нефти
7) water flooding — 7) разведочное бурение
8) oil production — 8) пластовое давление
9) oil field development — 9) заводнение
10) production well — 10) фонтанирующая скважина
13. Подберите к глаголам из списка А соответствующие существительные из списка В. Переведите словосочетания на русский язык.
A. 1) to develop, 2) to obtain, 3) to consist in, 4) to classify into, 5) to lift, 6) to produce, 7) to pump, 8) to drill, 9) to increase, 10) to save.
B. 1) wells, 2) an oil field, 3) the spacing, 4) the fluid, 5) large sums of money, 6) oil, 7) oil production, 8) data, 9) water, 10) groups.
14. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на предлог by. Помните, что сочетания слов с этим предлогом могут передавать разные отношения, которые в русском языке передаются падежными окончаниями или падежными окончаниями в сочетании с предлогами.
1. The optimal spacing of the production wells is dictated by the geological conditions. (твор. падеж.) 2. I get to my work by bus. (на) 3. He finished his work by5 o’clock. (k) 4. I was standing by the window (y). 5. They didn’t succeed in getting high yields by working with low grade gasoline. (из-за того, что) 6. The temperature has been raised by 150. (на). 7.We plan to finish this work by the end of this month. (k). 8. By introducing new methods of development it is possible to increase oil production. (путем введения, вводя). 9. This book is written by a well-known author. (кем?). 10. In mechanical oil wells the fluid is lifted by various engineering equipment (чем?), located directly in the well, by means of (посредством) air-gas lifts and subsurface pumps.
16. Образуйте формы Причастия I и II от следующих глаголов и переведите их:
to read, to do, to leave, to give, to know, to connect, to make, to speak, to build, to equip, to show, to design.
17. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:
читающие студенты; падающее тело; лектор, объясняющий новый материал; написанное письмо; прибор, сконструированный группой инженеров; решенные проблемы; студенты, решающие задачу; измеренное расстояние; статья, переведенная мной; пишущий человек; полученная информация; экспериментатор, нагревающий вещество.
18. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод форм причастия I и II.
1. We keep the materials used for laboratory works only on these stands. 2. The information received helped the scientists to solve the problem of the long-distance communication. 3. This drilling equipment is of modern design. 4. When burnt gas produced heat. 5. Designing new mining machines engineers should pay attention to geological conditions of mines. 6. The device designed by the group of engineers meets all the requirements. 7. The first wells drilled more oil wells in the Caucasus. 8. The boxes containing these minerals are under this desk. 9. They are reading the instructions for the next laboratory work. 10. Heated even to high temperatures water does not expand. 11. The tank and the pump were connected with a thin copper pipe made be the inventor. 12. The speed developed by the new car was 160 km per hour. 13. The words on the board are written in English. 14. This month the students are to work with the material collected by them during their professional practice. 15. The book received contained very important information about the new technology. 16. Developed in the works of this scientist, the theory is becoming very popular now. 17. The train leaving at 10 goes to Odessa. 18. Going to the institute the students living far from it take a bus. 19. The students study the properties of substances, experimenting with them. 20. We are going to finish our planned work in two months. 21. The temperature of air is defined with the help of different measuring devices. 22. The results of the experiments determining the properties of this new metal were recorded with the help of an automatic device.
19. Перескажите текст, используя вопросы упражнения 12.
20. Английский юмор: