Лекция: THE SUBJECT OF CRIME
I. If a person does something illegal, then he commits a crime. E.g. At some time in their lives people are driving above the speed limit, or are parking illegally, which are not serious crimes but minor offences. Theft, robbery, burglary, shoplifting, murder, rape etc. are serious offences and if a person is convicted of such crimes punishment will be very serious (e.g. many years in prison etc.).
II. When someone commits a crime the police must investigate it. When they find the person responsible for the crime, they arrest and question him. If the police are sure the person has committed the crime, the person is charged with the crime. The person must then do to court for trial. The defendant (accused) must try to prove that he is innocent (not guilty).
III. In order to inflict penalty on a man or a woman for the committed crime, he or she must reach the age stated by the law, at which the criminal responsibility for a concrete action sets in. For, if something is not prohibited by the law, it is allowed. Racial, sexual, educational, religious and other differences are not brought out by the law in order to inflict penalty.
The only exception is an official who must be punished for disciplinary offence as an official. Criminal responsibility in this country sets in form the age of 14 by law. Consequently, criminal responsibility sets in not only for adults (persons having come of age), but also for persons under age (13-18 y.o.) and for crimes committed by minors in civil – order usually persons under whose guardianship they are, take the responsibility.
Not depending on the age, a person must be responsible in order to be inflicted the penalty on, because an irresponsible person cannot be responsible for his actions. To sum up, a person can be punished, if he or she has been responsible and has reached the age stated by the law in the moment of committing the crime.