Лекция: Упражнение 20. Найдите предложения с союзами before и after.
1. There was no means of direct communication before the telephone was invented. 2. After World War 1 dirigibles gradually lost their significance as a means of transportation. 3. Before Newton no one could explain why the planets moved around the sun. 4. After a French engineer invented the first self-propelled road vehicle in 1770 many car designers wanted to make a better automobile. 5. Before each flight pilots must ask for the information about the weather expected during the planned route. 6. The «night vision» system enables drivers to see better after dark. 7. Before the industrial production of materials in space can be started,it is necessary to create special space stations. 8. Soon after Karl Marx's arrival in England he became a daily visitor of the Reading Room of the British Museum.
Упражнение 21. Выберите правильное слово из приведенных в скобках:
1. A young physicist can (get, get up) a prize for his work. 2. Designers tested a new engine to (find,find out) whether the ceramics it was made of could withstand temperatures up to 1,000 °C. 3. It is difficult to (get, get up)early in winter. 4. Many specialists are working at the problem of developing a new kind of telephone which we (call, call for) «video phone». 5. The projects in Siberia (call, call for) the most effective means of transporting various cargoes over long distances. 6. Specialists wanted to (find, find out) whether telephone communication was reliable or not. 7. Further development (call, call for) new specialists who are able to generate new technical ideas. 8. New generation materials which we (call, call for) composite materials will allow to lighten the aircraft. 9. To translate this text we must (find, find out) some words in the dictionary.
Упражнение 22.Назовите предложения, где подчеркнутое слово имеет следующее значение: а) действуя
1. They should know in what direction this force is acting. 2. Acting upon the body the force changes. З.Тпеу should find the force, acting
upon the body.
б) имеет дело, рассматривает
1. Thermodynamics is the branch of physics dealing with th< transformation of heat into work. 2. The experience of France dealing with the problem of environmental problems is very important. 3. Nov Russia is dealing very seriously with the problem of Baikal protection
1. Using thermomagnetic alloys in the turbine rotor allows to develoi a lot of various sensors. 2. By using thermomagnetic alloys it is possibk to develop a lot of various sensors. 3. Many American companies began using submersibles for tourism.
1. Construction specialists are working at improving the design of metro escalators. 2. While improving the design of metro escalators specialists developed a two speed escalator. 3. Our design bureau has developed spiral escalators improving the construction of public
1. A car exceeding its speed, the indicators show it on the display.
2. Exceeding the speed limit the driver should be very attentive.
3. There are relatively few cargoes exceeding 400 tons.
Упражнение 23.а) Прочитайте текст без словаря: Three Stonecutters
Three stonecutters (каменотес) were working hard. A man who was passing by watched them for a few minutes and then, turning to the first stonecutter, he asked: «What are you doing, my friend?» «I am working like a slave (раб). Look at my hands. Did you think I was playing?», he replied. The passer-by then looked at the second workman. «And what are you doing?», he asked. The stone-cutter answered quickly, «I am earning seven dollars and fifty cents a day. I hope to receive at least nine dollars a day in a very near future». The visitor studied the face of the third stonecutter. Once more, he asked, «And what are you doing, my friend?» The stonecutter's face lighted up as he replied, «I am helping to erect a magnificent building. Look at the colour in this piece of marble. I was just thinking how beautiful it will be when it is thoroughly polished. This building will last for hundreds of years and its beauty will inspire everyone who sees it.»
б) Составьте предложения в соответствии с содержанием текста:
1. The first stonecutter was the 1. he saw beauty and joy in his work,
unhappiest of the three because
2. The second one was happier than 2. he thought that all work was hard
the first stonecutter because and dull.
3. The third stonecutter was the 3. he thought that honest work
happiest of the three because brings advancement.
Упражнение 24. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их: drawn, grew, feeling, wake up, drank, cutting, sink.
Упражнение 25. Прочитайте и переведите без словаря:
An experimental undersea telephone cable in the Canary Islands had to be lifted from the ocean floor three times because of breakage. Each time sharks' ( акула) leeth were found in the damaged cable. Though the cable contains optical fibres transmitting signals in the form of light, it carries a very small amount of electrical wires. It is known that electricity attracts sharks. Therefore, ordinary electric power cables are usually provided with some kind of protection to stop their being attacked by sharks. However, it was not expected that it was necessary to mount this expensive protection on the new cable. But provided the designers had used this conventional protection on the new cable, the sharks would not have approached it.
CONVERSATION Exercise 1. Answer the questions:
1. What apparatuses are used for exploring the ocean depths at present? (non-military submersibles). 2. What countries are developing such submersibles? (Russia, the USA, France and Japan). 3. What kind of submersible is being designed? (an advanced manned submersible). 4. What is the depth it is capable to submerge to? (21,000 feet). 5. What motor is used in it? (a battery-operated electric motor). 6. What devices are provided for collecting samples from the ocean floor? (robotic manipulators). 7. What is the practical application of the submersible? (cultivating sea plants, fish and pearls).
Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts:
1. A new one-passenger submersible 1 • an underwater helicopter.
is designed for performing
2.This submersible is a spherical 2. to the depth of 3,300 feet.
3. It looks like 3. this apparatus will move like a
4. It can move in water environment 4. its sensory manipulator with
miniature video cameras and microphones.
5.While exploring the ocean floor 5. accurate scientific explorations.
6.The apparatus is capable to descend 6. due to the use of rotor instead of
7. A special feature of this manned conventional propeller.
submersible is 7. mounted on a metal platform.
Exercise 3. Read and learn:
Hiking in the Mountains
Mike: My steps become lighter because I hear the music of
running water. Let's stand and look at the stream. Jane: Why only look? I'm thirsty(xo4y пить) and nothing
tastes so good as cool mountain water.
M.: But passing the same water through the pores of the
skin does the body fifteen times as much good as it does
when you drink it. Put your hands and arms into the
deepest place and place and you'll feel so wonderful.
J.: I can't stop drinking. Look at the clear, smooth surface
of the stream. Water is beautiful.
M.: And perhaps,the most beautiful thing about it is its use.
It helps all living things in one way or another.
J.: I know that my own body is eighty-five per cent water.
M.: Yes, and this water keeps you going in spite of the
J.: How does it do this?
M.: By circulation it keeps your body at the same
temperature all the time.
J.: I've read that water has the most interesting properties
of all liquids. It is the slowest to cool and the slowest
M.: In winter the water in your body keeps you warm by
circulating evenly to all parts.In the heat of summer it
passes off through the million of pores of your skin.
This keeps you cool and takes away toxic material at
the same time.
J.: I think the great supply of water in the body is one of
the nature's great provisions.
M.: Sure, especially taking into consideration (принимать во
внимание) that the human being can live only within
the narrow range (диапазон)in body temperature of a
very few degrees Fahrenheit. Have you had enough
J.: Yes, I have. Usually I drink at least six glassfuls of
Exercise 4. Speak about:
1. An advanced manned submersible.
2. Practical applications of manned submersibles.
Use exercises 1,2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: to realize a dream, underwater exploration, to penetrate, a submersible vehicle, to descend to a depth up to, to perform tasks, collecting samples of minerals and marine life, to work for nine hours, to join efforts.
Exirsice 5. Comment on the following statement:
Scientists cannot afford (позволить себе) to be interested in things not connected with their subject.
One point of view: There is no alternative to пападу(узкий) specialization, everybody has a limited amount of time, it is unrealistic to expect a scientist to be interested in other fields than his own, a person who is interested in many things is sure to become a dilettante.
A contrary point of view: It is impossible to understand a particular science in complete isolation, the scientist should not be treated as a machine for solving specialized problems, a narrow specialist may tend to become a narrow -minded person, really great scientists have always had wide interests.