Лекция: Прочитайте текст и ответьте, какие меры необходимы для успешного решения проблемы защиты окружающей среды в глобальном масштабе. Переведите.
Environment Protection must be Global
That the problem of pollution and ecology has become the most important one for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization is developing, the greater the ecological problems are becoming. Air and water pollution by industry is now reaching tremendous proportions. In our era it is changing from a national to an international problem, especially in territories where rivers cross several countries. The seas and oceans are <fl also becoming seriously polluted. A similar situation is developing in the atmosphere. It is known that many cities throughout the world suffer from air pollution.
However,our scientific knowledge and technological advancement make it possible to eliminate it, if people use good will and make considerable investments for that purpose. The development of natural resources on a global scale is already possible from a scientific and technical standpoint. Large-scale experimental work in this area is successfully being carried out.
At present scientists in industrially developed countries are working on the theory of interaction of all the atmospheric and oceanic global processes that determine the climate and weather of the world. Increasing growth of population, industrialization and the use of resources are slowly but surely changing the global climate and water balance. This can be described as a great experiment,one that may bring about changes in the environment more serious than ever before.
The essential feature in the environment protection ii that many problems can be solved only on the level of world community. Therefore the planning of protection against pollution by human society as a whole is imperative today and in the nearest future. It is necessary to develop an international program to study data on land, forest, atmospheric and oceanic resources, both renewable and non-renewable. It is the joint efforts of many scientists and special public organizations that can deal with the problem and take necessary measures to protect the environment.
It is still a big job and much remains to be done. However scientists are confident that planned actions of all countries can eliminate pollution and achieve successes in purifying air, water and soil and in safeguarding natural resources. At the same time one must realize that social and political circumstances may stand in the way of further progress in this field.
Notes to the Text
1. good will — добрая воля
2. standpoint — точка зрения
3. community — сообщество
4. as a whole — в целом
5. much remains to be done — еще многое предстоит (остается) сделать
Упражнение 17. Просмотрите текст 2А и ответьте на вопросы:
1. What is this text about? 2. What is ecology? 3. How does water (air) become polluted? 4. Why is the problem of water pollution becoming a global problem?
Упражнение 18. Найдите предложения с глаголом-сказуемым в Present Continuous, переведите:
(I. Water and air are becoming more and more polluted. 2, At present computers are more widely used in the sphere of education. 3. Wjiere were you at six o'clock? We were studying in the reading-room. 4. There are government and public organizations that are studying data on the land,the forest and the air.^Tftew courses of education such as management are being organized in many institutes. 6. What will you be doing in the laboratory tomorrow morning? We shall be watching the operation of a new device. 7. Measures are being taken to save Lake Baikal. 8. The situation at Lake Baikal is remaining very serious. 9. Much attention is being paid at present to the development of international scientific contacts. 10. Science is becoming a leading factor in the progress of mankind.
Упражнение 19. Найдите предложения с глаголом-сказуемым в Continuous Passive, переведите:
с 1. Cambridge University was formed in the 12-th century. 2. Solution of ecological problems may be achieved only by joint efforts of all countries. 3. Great changes in people's lives and work were brought about by the scientific and technological progress.^ The theory of interaction of atmospheric and oceanic processes is being developed to determine the weather of thgpplanet. 5. The teachers at Cambridge are called «dons» or «tutors». 6. Computers and lasers are being widely introduced at plants and factories./f. The most important ecological problems must be considered at the government level. 8. The training at Cambridge and Oxford is carried out by tutorial system.
Упражнение 20. Найдите предложения, где /7 является формальным подлежащим, личным местоимением или входит в состав усилительной конструкции, переведите:
1. It is dark here. Please, turn on the light. 2.1t was Gagarin who was the first man to orbit the Earth. 3. Our students study strength of materials. It is a very difficult subject. 4. Mathematics is studied at all technological institutes because every engineer must know it well. 5. It is the most interesting article on this subject. 6. It has become evident that ecological problems can be solved only on the global level. 7. Joint efforts of people throughout the world make it possible to achieve some progress in environment protection. 8. It is the development of robots that will solve some very complex problems of industry. 9. It is evident that research is becoming more specialized now. 10. The use of the new equipment made it possible to minimize the number of workers. 11. It is industrialization that is making ecological problems very serious.
Упражнение 21.Определите значения one иthat, переведите предложения: 1. The problem that has become the most important one is the problem of pollution. 2. One can easily understand why the profession of an engineer requires a special college training 3. The new technologies that are being developed must be connected with traditional ones. 4. That air and water pollution by industrialization is reaching dangerous levels is realized by everyone. 5. It is the invention of an engine that started the first industrial revolution. 6. The main purpose of education is that graduates must be able to work with the technology of tomorrow. 7. The education in Oxford and Cambridge is different in many ways from that in other universities. 8. We discussed the first industrial revolution, the one that took place some centuries ago. 9. New robots will have several manipulators that will carry out many functions. 10. That computers and industrial robots are important for industrial uses is well known to scientists and engineers. 11. One must realize that the increasing number of cars brings about considerable pollution of the air. 12. It is the growth of industrialization that is changing the climate of the planet. 13. The essential feature of higher education in this country is that it combines theory with practice.
14. The simplest materials are those which have only one kind of atoms.
15. That the Earth is round was unknown for a long time. 16. It is found that the labour (труд) of a man with secondary education is 108 per cent more efficient than that of a man without that education. Moreover, the work of a university or college graduate is 300 per cent more efficient than that of a specialist with secondary education.
Упражнение 22. Переведите предложения с союзами сравнения:
1. The bigger the cities are, the greater the pollution is. 2. The more computers and robots are used in industry, the quicker technological progress will be. 3. The more automobiles appear in the streets, the worse the air in the cities is. 4. The more effective is the technology, the quicker is the development of this country. 5. The quicker we joint our efforts in protecting the environment, the quicker the ecological problems are solved.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ
Упражнение 23. Определите по суффиксу, к какой части речиотносятся следующие слова:
radioactivity, measurement, interaction, society, nervous, elimination, basic, proportion, seriously, symbolic, anxious, ecological, organizer.
Упражнение 24. Назовите глаголы, образованные от следующих существительных, и переведите их:
advancement (продвижение вперед, прогресс), investment (капиталовложение), measurement (измерение),achievement (достижение), improvement (улучшение), fulfillment (выполнение).
Упражнение 25. Переведите следующие слова с префиксом re-: rename, reopen, renew, renewable, non-renewable, renewal.
Упражнение 26.Найдите среди следующих слов
зкгту, old,at present, small, quickly, in the past,new,large;
tremendous, epoch, realize, several, work, progress, great, field, era, understand, make it possible, different, achieve, some, advance, enable, area, various, reach, essential, job, important.
Упражнение27. Составьте предложения, пользуясь словами и выражениями из таблицы:
|Her Mend||are watching||a letter|
|They||is writing||on the telephone|
|I||are listening to||the latest news on the radio|
|You||am reading||the TV programme|
Упражнение 28, Придумайте предложения со следующими глаголами-сказуемыми:
is changing, was changing, will be changing, are becoming, will be developing, are being introduced, was being solved.
Упражнение 29. Раскройте скобки:
When Peter was a child, he had two drawing books. One of them was (large) than the other. His elder brother bought the (large) one for him. Peter liked it (well) because'the drawings in it were (large) and simple. He drew something every day. Each new day his drawing was (good) than the one he had made the day before. The last page was much (good) than the first one.
After graduating from the institute Mike went to Siberia to a small industrial town. It was much (difficult) for him to begin his work as an engineer than he thought that it would be. He moved to (important) city than the first one. He was not (successful) there than before, however, and sometimes he was even (unhappy). However, he was (happy) about one thing, he was becoming a (useful) specialist.
New York is the (large) city in the US. Perhaps, with all its suburbs (пригород), it is the (large)city in the world. It is one of the (important) industrial cities in the country. Some of the (old) and historic buildings are there. Some of the buildings in New York City are the (high) building in the whole world. New York City is not only the (large) city in the US; it is also the (important) industrial center. Perhaps, the (expensive) office buildings in the world are there.It has the (great) number of factories, the (large) banks and post offices. It sends out many letters and receives the (heavy) mail bags. It is truly the (important) business city.
Упражнение 30. Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его:
The highest mountain in the world is Mount Everest-29,002 feet high. The largest ocean is the Pacific having a total area of 63,986,000 square
miles. The Atlantic Ocean, the next largest, is only 31,530,000 square miles, the Indian Ocean with 28,350,000 square miles comes third. The longest river is the Nile which is more than 4,000 miles longer or about twice the distance by air from London to Beirut. The biggest island is Greenland which belongs to Denmark and is about 840,000 square miles in extent. The largest lake is the Caspian Sea. Geographers consider it as a lake because it is not connected with any of the great oceans. It has an area of about 170,000 square miles. Which is the deepest sea? So far, as we know at present the greatest depth is in the Pacific Ocean near the Philippines and goes down to 37,000 feet, which is much more than the height of Everest. The biggest volcano is in Ecuador, South America. It is still active and 19,612 feet high.There is another one between Argentina and Chile and it is more than 3,000 feet higher.
Упражнение 31. Напишите следующие существительные в единственном числе:
cities, countries,societies,universities,technologies, lorries, industries, dictionaries, territories, theories, communities.
Упражнение 32. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их: grown, stand, dealing, brought, knew, making, send, found, thought, spending.
Упражнение 33. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря:
It is difficult for mankind to predict (предсказать) changes in the environment accurately. It is known that natural changes in weather and climate may have more catastrophic global effects than human activity. But scientists are developing a new concept that can help make such prediction more accurately. It is based on our understanding that the Earth is an integral system. Its parts — oceans, atmosphere, land or life — cannot be understood in isolation to predict changes in the most accurate way. Modern scientific and technological progress made it possible to use new technologies for that purpose. That satellites can control physical, chemical, biological and geological changes on a global scale is well-known now. One must also know that the study of environmental problems with the help of satellites is becoming international. Russia, the US, France, Japan, Canada, India, China and Italy are planning to send their satellites in both polar and geostationary orbits.
Exercise 1. Answer the questions: Example:
What is one of the most important problems for mankind now? (the problem of pollution and ecology).
The problem of pollution and ecology is one of the most important problems for mankind now.
1. What problem is becoming a global problem? (the problem of air and water pollution).
2. What makes it possible to eliminate air and water pollution? (scientific knowledge and technological advance, good will and large investments).
3. What are scientists in industrially developed countries currently working on? (the theory of interaction of the atmospheric and oceanic global processes).
4. What factors are siowly changing tne global climate and water balance? (the growth of population, industrialization and use of resources).
5. What actions are necessary to take to deal successfully with the problem of protecting the environment throughout the world? (planning, developing international programs to study ecological datajoint efforts of scientists and special public organizations).
Exercise 2. Make a sentenceout of the twoparts:
|1. /vi present one or me most important problems for mankind 2. The rivers, seas and oceans 3. That purifying air, water and soil is changing from a national to a global problem 4. Therefore, it is necessary 5. Scientists expect that|
1. are becoming seriously polluted
2. are successfully being carried out on a global scale.
3. it is possible to eliminate air and water pollution by planned actions of human society as a whole.
4. is evident to all.
|6. Large-scale experiments in this area|
5. to take measures to safequard natural resources and the environment on a global scale.
6. is that air and water pollution is reaching very large proportions.
Exercise 3. Read andlearn:
Rita: Did you have a nice weekend?
Mary: Yes, I did. I was tired of watching television, going to parties to the movies and so on. John and I decided to go to Pennsylvania University to take part in the discussion on environmental problems.
R.: Oh, really! How unusual! That must have been interesting.
M.: Yes, it was. There was a lot of people, scientists and
politicians. Have you heard about such a firm called «Sanyo
R.: Certainly. It is well known for its electronics.
M.: It's one of the first companies to make products that don't
pollute the environment.
R.: Oh, my father told us about new heating systems made by
this company. They use clean and safe technology.
Exercise 4. Speak about:
1. The problem of pollution and ecology is one of the most importan problems for mankind.
2. Ecological problems in your home town, especially the problem of air pollution.
Use exercise 1, 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: to become oolluted by industry and transport; to reach high level; to develop a program of purifying airin industrial centers; to take necessary measures; for eliminating pollution; newtechnologies; make it possible; successfully.
Exercise 5. Read and smile:
One evening Rutherford entered the laboratory. It was late, but he found one of his students working with some apparatus.
»What are you doing here so late?" Rutherford asked.
«I'm working, sir,» was the answer.
«And what do you do in the day time?»
«Oh, I work, of course, sir,» answered the student.
«Do you work early in the morning, too?»
«Yes, professor, I work early in the morning, too,» said the student, quite sure that the famous scientist would praise (хвалить) him.
Rutherford looked at him gloomily (мрачно).
«Tell me,» he asked with irritation (раздражение),
«when do you think?»
Прочитайте текст. Укажите отрицательные стороны научно-технического прогресса. Приведите примеры экологической ситуации в Вашем городе.
The British, like many other Europeans, are becoming more and more worried (беспокоиться) about their environment. Here are some of the environmental problems that they face.
As the population of large cities like London, Birmingham and Manchester continues to grow, pollution problems become worse.
The air in many towns and cities is being polluted by traffic (транспорт, движение) and industry. The number of cars and lorries is growing all the time. On the one hand,they bring mobility to millions of people,but on the other hand, they need bigger, better and more expensive roads, which often ruin the countryside (сельская местность). Traffic in cities is getting worse and worse. Water pollution has become a serious problem in many British rivers.People living near airports suffer from the noise of increasingly larger and more powerful Jet airliners taking off and landing.