Реферат: The models of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.
Model of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.
Every subsequent element of the table of elements differs from the previous one in the amount of protons in its nucleus which is increased by one unit and the amount of neutrons is increased by several units in general. That means, that there are more neutrons in the nucleus than protons (without taking into consideration the lightest nucleuses).The scientific literature doesn’t give any explanation of this strange correlation of neutrons’ number to the protons’ number.
It should be noted that for the construction of the model of atom’s nucleus , He nucleuses have the same energies during the alpha-radioactivity. That’s why let’s place all protons with the same number of neutrons on the nucleus external shell, that means, that on the same energy level only bosons can be found, and they are considered to be alpha-elements found on the nucleus external shell.
Let’s place the rest of neutrons inside the nucleus, their task is to weaken the electrostatic field of protons’ repulsion. Supposing that the nucleus is spherical and protons and neutrons have the same radiuses, we’ll get a model of nucleus for any element, which explains the number of neutrons’ ratio to the number of protons, which follows from the existence of nucleons in the atom’s nucleus .
Radioactive decay is probably connected with the nucleus compression, because neutrons in the nucleus capacity weaken radial forces of protons’ repulsion with the growth of an element’s ordinal number.
If nucleusesmass is primary and chemical qualities of an atom are secondary,than in the table of elements atomic weight must change continuously either down on across. Having constructed the table according to these features we have to leave four empty places after Lu and Lr in order to observe chemical qualities of elements. Determination of nucleus charge is probably necessity in discovering elements .
As a matter of fact elements are considered to be discovered based on their chemical qualities .
/> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> /> />
In 1891 James Chardwik carried out researches and with the help of Rezerford’s formula rated nucleuses charges for platinum-77,4; silver-46,3;copper-29,3. These results almost coincided with ordinal numbers of these elements in the periodic table .
But the last lanthanide are radioactive! According to our model of atom’s nucleus radioactivity of the subsequent after lanthanide elements can be reduced, by bringing a shell inside the nucleus which consists of 4 protons or 4 alpha-elements.
But then defining the nucleuses charge of platinum’s atom on Chardwik’s method, we would get again 77,4 ; because alpha-elements would disperse onthe nucleus’s external shell of an atom .
That’s why the question of more precise definition of nucleus charges of elements following the Hf, is raised.
This is probably the reason of the failure to get to the “ island of stability “ and seditious idea comes to the mine we build atomic electric power stations without knowing the definite amount of neutrons and protons in the nucleuses of uranium and plutonium .
Henadzi Filipenka, teacher of materials
Hehadzi Filipenka “Engineer” Moscow N4 1990 , N4 1991.