Реферат: London

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                          LONDON

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        London,the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, is situated on the banks ofthe river Thames. The city is very old, it's more than 20 centuries. Itspopulation is nearly 9 million people. The area known as «GreatLondon» occupies the territory of about 1.8 thousand square km.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Thecapital of the country is the important financial centre and one of the largestports of the world. Administratively London is divided into 33 districts, butat the same time there are some parts of London, which have some distinctivefeatures: the West End, the East End, the City, Westminster.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        The Cityof London is the commercial centre of all the country. It contains the Bank ofEngland, business firms, companies, corporations, office buildings. Besides theBank of England, London has 5 largest commercial banks of the United Kingdomand well-known London Stock Exchange.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Themasterpiece of architecture in the City today is St. Paul's Cathedral, designedby Christopher Wren, the famous English architect of the 17th century. In thisCathedral there are statues and tombs of the national English heroes: Nelson,Wellington and others.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        The Towerof London is an old castle, situated in the City. It was used as a fortress, apalace and a prison. During its long period of existence it was time when theTower was even the Zoo. It was the Royal Zoo, of course. Now the Tower is amuseum and houses the Crown jewels and other treasures. There is a legens inEngland that the Tower will fall if it loses it's ravens. That's why thesebirds are carefully guarded.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">       Wesminster is the aristocratic, official part of London. It's veryattractive for tourists because it has historical places full of customs andtraditions. Parliament is situated in the Palace of Westminster. The famous BigBen, the clock from which all people of this country take the time is in one ofits beutiful towers.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">       Westminster Abbey is very beautiful church, which is more than 900 yearsold. Nearly all the kings and queens of Britain were crowned and buried there.Many famous people of this country were buried in the Abbey, among them Newton,Darwin, Dickens, Kipling and others. In the Poet's corner there are memorialsto Shakespeare, Burns, Byron, Scott, Thackeray and Longfellow.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Theofficial residence of the Queen of England is Buckingham Palace. The changingof the guard before Buckingham Palace several times a day is wached by hundredsof people.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Londonhas 30 museums. One of the best known museums is the British Museum, itslibrary has unique collection of manuscripts; the richest collection ofantiquities and seven million of books. The Art Galleries of London such as theTate Gallery, the National Gallery, the Royal Academy of Arts are considered tobe the largest in the British Commonwealth.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Visitorsof London are surprised by the famous Madam Tussaud's Exhibition, which wasopened in 1802. It's an exhibition of hundreds of wax models of famouspoliticians, kings, queens, sportsmen. Here you can meet Elton John, Picasso,Lenin, Hitler, The Beatles, Marilyn Monroe and so on.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Londonhas more than 80 theatres. The best known are the Royal Opera House, the RoyalShakespeare Theartre, the Old Vic located in the West End of London.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Londonis the centre of education and science. Higher educational establishments amongwhich the London University, the British Academy, the Greenwich Observatory arewell known in the world. Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities inEngland.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Thecapital has 17 bridges, the famous Tower Bridge being most attractive amongthem.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Niceparks and gardens of the capital are loved by inhabitants of the city. Thecapital has a number of beautiful parks such as Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park,St. James Park, Green Park, Regent Park and others. Regent Park has open airtheatre, where every summer Shakespeare's comedies are performed. Regent Parkhas the largest Zoo in the country. But the most famous park is the Hyle Parkbecause of its famous «Speaker's Corner» ( a corner where everyonecan stands there with a microphone and tell other people whatever they want)

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        The partof London, called Soho is known as restaurant centre where Londoners andvisitors can taste Russian, Italian, Frech exotic food. This is also thedistrict of cinema producers. All the biggest film companies have offices inSoho. The capital has more than 200 cinemas and a lot of concert halls.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        The EastEnd of the capital includes the Port of London, Docks and the poorestdistricts. Rather unattractive in appearance it is very important to thecountry's commerce.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Thestreets of London are always of great interest to tourists. Fleet Street is thestreet of British Press. Oxford, Regent, Bond streets are the main shoppingcentres. Downing Street is famous as the official residence of the PrimeMinister of the country. Piccadilly Circus is the place where people gather onNew Year's Eve.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        TheEnglish are fond of sports, they have a great number of sport federations,associations and clubs. The most interesting tennis and football competitionsand tournaments are held in Wimbledon court and Wembley stadium.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        The West End is the richest and the mostbeautiful part of London, symbol of wealth and luxury. English aristocracylievs there.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Londonis the chief port of the country, it has 2 airports and 16 railwaystations.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Londonis an important manufacturing centre. It's well known for printing, filmproduction, manufacture of clothing, food. Automobile and aircraft industriesare centred there.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">        Theoldest underground called «tube» is still one of the largest in theworld. It was opened in 1863. The famous red double — deckers are also animportant part of the public transport system.

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