Реферат: История компьютера и компьютерной техники


TheComparative Analisis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The ComputerEngineering In The USA And Ukraine.



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It is not proposed to discuss here the origins andsignificance of the stored program. Nor I wish to deal with the related problemof whether the machines before the stored program were or were not “computers”.This subject is complicated by the confusion in actual names given to machines.For example, the ENIAC, which did not incorporate a stored program, wasofficially named a computer: Electronic Numeral Integrator And Computer. Butthe first stored-program machine to be put into regular operation was MauriceWiles’ EDSAC: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator. It seems to berather senseless to deny many truly significant innovations (by H.H.Aiken andby Eckert and Mauchly), which played an important role in the history ofcomputers, on the arbitrary ground that they did not incorporate thestored-program concept. Additionally, in the case of Aiken, it is significantthat there is a current computer technology that does not incorporate thestored programs and that is designated as (at least by TEXAS INSTRUMENTSâ) as “Harvard architecture”, though, it should more properly becalled “Aiken architecture”. In this technology the program is fix and notsubject to any alteration save by intent — as in some computers used fortelephone switching and in ROM.


Aiken was a visionary, a man ahead of his times.Grace Hopper and others remember his prediction in the late 1940s, even beforethe vacuum tube had been wholly replaced by the transistor, that the time wouldcome when a machine even more powerful than the giant machines of those dayscould be fitted into a space as small as a shoe box.

Some weeks before his death Aiken had made anotherprediction. He pointed out that hardware considerations alone did not give atrue picture of computer costs. As hardware has become cheaper, software hasbeen apt to get more expensive. And then he gave us his final prediction: “Thetime will come”, he said, “when manufacturers will gave away hardware in orderto sell software”. Time alone will tell whether or not this was his final lookahead into the future.



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Although the work at Xerox PARC was crucial,it was not the spark that took PCs out of the hands of experts and into thepopular imagination. That happened inauspiciously in January 1975, when themagazine Popular Electronics put anew kit for hobbyists, called the Altair, on its cover. for the first time,anybody with $400 and a soldering iron could buy and assemble his own computer.The Altair inspired Steve Wosniak and Steve Jobs to build the first Applecomputer, and a young college dropout named Bill Gates to write software forit. Meanwhile. the person who deserves the credit for inventing the Altair, anengineer named Ed Roberts, left the industry he had spawned to go to medicalschool. Now he is a doctor in small town in central Georgia.

To this day, researchers at Xerox and elsewherepooh-pooh the Altair as too primitive to have made use of the technology theyfelt was needed to bring PCs to the masses. In a sense, they are right. TheAltair incorporated one of the first single-chip microprocessor — asemiconductor chip, that contained all the basic circuits needed to docalculations — called the Intel 8080. Although the 8080 was advanced forits time, it was far too slow to support the mouse, windows, and elaboratesoftware Xerox had developed. Indeed, it wasn’t until 1984, when AppleComputer’s Macintosh burst onto the scene, that PCs were powerful enough tofulfill the original vision of researchers. “The kind of computing that peopleare trying to do today is just what we made at PARC in the early 1970s,” saysAlan Kay, a former Xerox researcher who jumped to Apple in the early 1980s.


Researchers today are proceeding in the same spiritthat motivated Kay and his Xerox PARC colleagues in the 1970s: to makeinformation more accessible to ordinary people. But a look into today’sresearch labs reveals very little that resembles what we think of now as a PC.For one thing, researchers seem eager to abandon the keyboard and monitor thatare the PC’s trademarks. Instead they are trying to devise PCs withinterpretive powers that are more humanlike — PCs that can hear you and seeyou, can tell when you’re in a bad mood and know to ask questions when theydon’t understand something.

It is impossible to predict the invention that,like the Altair, crystallize new approaches in a way that captures people’simagination.

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Top 20computer systems


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MITS Altair 8800

There once was a time when you could buy atop-of-the-line computer for $395. The only catch was that you had to build ityourself. Although the Altair 8800 wasn’t actually the first personal computer(Scelbi Computer Consulting`s 8008-based Scelbi-8H kit probably took that honorin 1973), it grabbed attention. MITS sold 2000 of them in 1975 — more than anysingle computer before it.

Based on Intel`s 8-bit 8080 processor, the Altair8800 kit included 256 bytes of memory (upgradable, of course) and atoggle-switch-and-LED front panel. For amenities such as keyboard, videoterminals, and storage devices, you had to go to one of the companies thatsprang up to support the Altair with expansion cards. In 1975, MITS offered 4-and 8-KB Altair versions of BASIC, the first product developed by Bill Gates`and Paul Allen`s new company, Microsoft.

If the personal computer hobbyists movement wassimmering, 1975 saw it come to a boil with the introduction of the Altair 8800.

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Apple II

Those of you who think of the IBM PC as thequintessential business computers may be in for a surprise: The Apple II(together with VisiCalc) was what really made people to look at personalcomputers as business tools, not just toys.

The Apple II debuted at the first West CoastComputer Fair in San Francisco in 1977. With built-in keyboard, graphicsdisplay, eight readily accessible expansion slots, and BASIC built-into ROM,the Apple II was actually easy to use. Some of its innovations, like built-inhigh-resolution color graphics and a high-level language with graphicscommands, are still extraordinary features in desk top machines.

With a 6502 CPU, 16 KB of RAM, a 16-KB ROM, acassette interface that never really worked well (most Apple It ended up withthe floppy drive the was announced in 1978), and color graphics, the Apple IIsold for $1298.

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Commondore PET

Also introduced at the first West Coast ComputerFair, Commondore`s PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) started a long line ofexpensive personal computers that brought computers to the masses. (The VIC-20that followed was the first computer to sell 1 million units, and theCommondore 64 after that was the first to offer a whopping 64 KB of memory.)

The keyboard and small monochrome display both fitin the same one-piece unit. Like the Apple II, the PET ran on MOS Technology’s6502. Its $795 price, key to the Pet’s popularity supplied only 4 KB of RAM butincluded a built-in cassette tape drive for data storage and 8-KB version ofMicrosoft BASIC in its 14-KB ROM.

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Radio Shack TRS-80

Remember the Trash 80? Sold at local Radio Shackstores in your choice of color (Mercedes Silver), the TRS-80 was the firstready-to-go computer to use Zilog`s Z80 processor.

The base unit was essentially a thick keyboard with4 KB of RAM and 4 KB of ROM (which included BASIC). An optional expansion boxthat connected by ribbon cable allowed for memory expansion. A Pink Pearleraser was standard equipment to keep those ribbon cable connections clean.

Much of the first software for this system wasdistributed on audiocassettes played in from Radio Shack cassette recorders.

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Osborne 1 Portable

By the end of the 1970s, garage start-ups werepass. Fortunately there were other entrepreneurial possibilities. Take AdamOsborne, for example. He sold Osborne Books to McGraw-Hill and started OsborneComputer. Its first product, the 24-pound Osborne 1 Portable, boasted a lowprice of $1795.

More important, Osborne established the practice ofbundling software — in spades. The Osborne 1 came with nearly $1500 worth ofprograms: WordStar, SuperCalc, BASIC, and a slew of CP/M utilities.

Business was looking good until Osbornepreannounced its next version while sitting on a warehouse full of Osborne 1S.Oops. Reorganization under Chapter 11 followed soon thereafter.

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Xerox Star

This is the system that launched a thousandinnovations in 1981. The work of some of the best people at Xerox PARC (PaloAlto Research Center) went into it. Several of these — the mouse and a desktopGUI with icons — showed up two years later in Apple`s Lisa and Macintoshcomputers. The Star wasn’t what you would call a commercial success, however.The main problem seemed to be how much it cost. It would be nice to believethat someone shifted a decimal point somewhere: The pricing started at $50,000.

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Irony of ironies that someone at mainframe-centricIBM recognized the business potential in personal computers. The result was in1981 landmark announcement of the IBM PC. Thanks to an open architecture, IBM’sclout, and Lotus 1-2-3 (announced one year later), the PC and its progeny madebusiness micros legitimate and transformed the personal computer world.

The PC used Intel`s 16-bit 8088, and for $3000, itcame with 64 KB of RAM and a 51/4-inch floppy drive. Theprinter adapter and monochrome monitor were extras, as was the color graphicsadapter.

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Compaq Portable

Compaq’s Portable almost single-handedly createdthe PC clone market. Although that was about all you could do with itsingle-handedly — it weighed a ton. Columbia Data Products just preceded Compaqthat year with the first true IBM PC clone but didn’t survive. It was Compaq’squickly gained reputation for engineering and quality, and its essentially 100percent IBM compatibility (reverse-engineering, of course), that legitimizedthe clone market. But was it really designed on a napkin?

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Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100

Years before PC-compatible subnotebook computers,Radio Shack came out with a book-size portable with a combination of features,battery life, weight, and price that is still unbeatable. (Of course, theZ80-based Model 100 didn’t have to run Windows.)

The $800 Model 100 had only an 8-row by 40-columnreflective LCD (large at the time) but supplied ROM-based applications(including text editor, communications program, and BASIC interpreter), abuilt-in modem, I/O ports, nonvolatile RAM, and a great keyboard. Wieghingunder 4 pounds, and with a battery life measured in weeks (on four AAbatteries), the Model 100 quickly became the first popular laptop, especiallyamong journalists.

With its battery-backed RAM, the Model 100 wasalways in standby mode, ready to take notes, write a report, or go on-line.NEC`s PC 8201 was essentially the same Kyocera-manufectured system.

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Apple Macintosh

Whether you saw it as a seductive invitation topersonal computing or a cop-out to wimps who were afraid of a command line,Apple`s Macintosh and its GUI generated even more excitement than the IBM PC.Apple`s R&D people were inspired by critical ideas from Xerox PARK (andpracticed on Apple`s Lisa) but added many of their own ideas to create apolished product that changed the way people use computers.

The original Macintosh used Motorola’s 16-bit 68000microprocessor. At $2495, the system offered a built-in-high-resolutionmonochrome display, the Mac OS, and a single-button mouse. With only 128 KB ofRAM, the Mac was underpowered at first. But Apple included some keyapplications that made the Macintosh immediately useful. (It was MacPaint thatfinally showed people what a mouse is good for.)

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George Orwell didn’t foresee the AT in 1984. Maybeit was because Big Blue, not Big Brother, was playing its cards close to itschest. The IBM AT set new standards for performance and storage capacity.Intel`s blazingly fast 286 CPU running at 6 MHz and 16-bit bus structure gavethe AT several times the performance of previous IBM systems. Hard drivecapacity doubled from 10 MB to 20 MB (41 MB if you installed two drives — justdonut ask how they did the math), and the cost per megabyte droppeddramatically.

New 16-bit expansion slots meant new (and faster)expansion cards but maintained downward compatibility with old 8-bit cards.These hardware changes and new high-density 1.2-MB floppy drives meant a newversion of PC-DOS (the dreaded 3.0).

The price for an AT with 512 KB of RAM, aserial/parallel adapter, a high-density floppy drive, and a 20-MB hard drivewas well over $5000 — but much less than what the pundits expected.

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Commondore Amiga 1000

The Amiga introduced theworld to multimedia. Although it cost only $1200, the 68000-based Amiga 1000did graphics, sound, and video well enough that many broadcast professionalsadopted it for special effects. Its sophisticated multimedia hardware designwas complex for a personal computer, as was its multitasking, windowing OS.

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Compaq Deskrpo 386

While IBM was busy developing (would “wasting timeon” be a better phrase?) proprietary Micro Channel PS/2 system, clone vendorsALR and Compaq wrestled away control of the x86 architecture and introduced thefirst 386-based systems, the Access 386 and Deskpro 386. Both systemsmaintained backward compatibility with the 286-based AT.

Compaq’s Deskpro 386 had a further performanceinnovation in its Flex bus architecture. Compaq split the x86 external bus intotwo separate buses: a high-speed local bus to support memory chips fast enoughfor the 16-MHz 386, and a slower I/O bus that supported existing expansioncards.

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Apple Macintosh II

When you first looked at the Macintosh II, you mayhave said, “But it looks just like a PC. ”You would have been right. Appledecided it was wiser to give users a case they could open so they could upgradeit themselves. The monitor in its 68020-powered machine was a separate unitthat typically sat on top of the CPU case.

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Next Nextstation

UNIX had never been easy to use, and only now, 10years later, are we getting back to that level. Unfortunately, Steve Job’s cubenever developed the software base it needed for long-term survival.Nonetheless, it survived as an inspiration for future workstations.

Priced at less than $10,000, the elegantNextstation came with a 25-MHz 68030 CPU, a 68882 FPU, 8 MB of RAM, and thefirst commercial magneto-optical drive (256-MB capacity). It also had abuilt-in DSP (digital signal processor). The programming language  was object-oriented C, and the OS was aversion of UNIX, sugarcoated with a consistent GUI that rivaled Apple`s.

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NEC UltraLite

Necks UltraLite is the portable that put subnotebook into the lexicon. Like RadioShack’s TRS-80 Model 100, the UltraLite was a 4-pounder ahead of its time.Unlike the Model 100, it was expensive (starting price, $2999), but it couldrun MS-DOS. (The burden of running Windows wasn’t yet thrust upon its shoulders.)

Fans liked the 4.4-pound UltraLite for its trimsize and portability, but  it reallyneeded one of today’s tiny hard drives. It used battery-backed DRAM (1 MB,expandable to 2 MB) for storage, with ROM-based Traveling Software’s LapLink tomove stored data to a desk top PC.

Foreshadowing PCMCIA, the UltraLite had a socketthat accepted credit-card-size ROM cards holding popular applications likeWordPerfect or Lotus 1-2-3, or a battery-backed 256-KB RAM card.

·Sun SparcStation 1

It wasn’t the first RISK workstation, nor even thefirst Sun system to use Sun’s new SPARC chip. But the SparcStation 1 set a newstandard for price/performance, churning out 12.5 MIPS at a starting price ofonly $8995 — about what you might spend for a fully configured Macintosh. Sunsold lots of systems and made the words SparcStationand workstation synonymous inmany peoples minds.

The SparcStation 1 also introduced S-Bus, Sun’sproprietary 32-bit synchronous bus, which ran at the same 20-MHz speed as theCPU.

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IBM RS/6000

Sometimes, when IBM decides to do something, itdoes it right.(Other times… Well, remember the PC jr.?)The RS/6000 allowedIBM to enter the workstation market. The RS/6000`s RISK processor chip set(RIOS) racked up speed records and introduced many to term suprscalar. But its price was more than competitive. IBM pushedthird-party software support, and as a result, many desktop publishing, CAD,and scientific applications ported to the RS/6000, running under AIX, IBM’sUNIX.

A shrunken version of the multichip RS/6000architecture serves as the basis for the single-chip PowerPC, thenon-x86-compatible processor with the best chance of competing with Intel.

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·Apple Power Macintosh

Not many companies have made the transition fromCISC to RISK this well. The Power Macintosh represents Apple`s well-planned andsuccessful leap to bridge two disparate hardware platforms. Older Macs runMotorola’s 680x0 CISK line, which is running out of steam; the Power Macs runexisting 680x0-based applications yet provide Power PC performance, acombination that sold over a million systems in a year.

·IBM ThinkPad 701C

It is not often anymore that a new computerinspires gee-whiz sentiment, but IBM’s Butterfly subnotebook does, with itsmarvelous expanding keyboard. The 701C`s two-part keyboard solves the lastmajor piece in the puzzle of building of usable subnotebook: how to providecomfortable touch-typing.(OK, so the floppy drive is sill external.)

With a full-size keyboard and a 10.4-inch screen,the 4.5-pound 701C compares favorably with full-size notebooks. Battery life isgood, too.


The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

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Up to the beginning of the 1950s there were onlysmall productive capacities which specialized in the producing accounting andaccount-perforating (punching) machines. The electronic numerical computerengineering was only arising and the productive capacities for it were close tothe naught.

The first serious steps in the development ofproduction base were made initially in the late 1950s when the work on creatingthe first industry samples of the electronic counting machines was finished andthere were created M-20, “Ural-1”, “Minsk-1”, which together with theirsemi-conductor successors (M-220, “Ural-11-14”, “Minsk-22” and “Minsk-32”)created in the 1960s were the main ones in the USSR until the computers of thethird generation were put into the serial production, that is until the early1970s.

In the 1960s the science-research and assemblingbase was enlarged. As the result of this measures, all researches connectedwith creating and putting into the serial production of semi-conductorelectronic computing machines were almost finished. That allowed to stop theproduction of the first generation machines beginning from the 1964.

Next decades the whole branch of the computerengineering had been created. The important steps were undertaken to widen theproductive capacities for the 3d generation machines.


the homecity of mesm

<img src="/cache/referats/9928/image010.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1029">Modelof the Big Electronic Computing Machine, but ,later, in the process of itscreation there appeared the evident expediency of transforming it in a smallcomputer. For that reason there were added: the impute-output devices, magneticdrum storage, the register capacity was enhanced; and the word “Model” was changed for “Malaya” (Small).

S.A.Lebedev was proposed to head the Institute ofEnergetics in Kiev. After a year; when the Institute of was divided into twodepartments: the electronical one and the department of heat-and-powerengineering, Lebedev became the director of the first one. He also added hislaboratory of analogue computation to the already existing ones of theelectronical type. At once he began to work on computer science instead of theusual, routine researches in the field of engineering means of stabilizationand structures of automated devices. Lebedev was awarded the State Prize of theUSSR. Since autumn 1948 Lebedev directed his laboratory towards creating theMESM. The most difficult part of the work was the practical creation of MESM.It might be only the many-sided experience of the researches that allowed thescientist to fulfill the task perfectly; whereas one inaccuracy was made: thehall at the ground-floor of a two-storied building was assigned for MESM andwhen, at last, the MESM was assembled and switched on, 6,000 of red-hotelectronic lamps created the “tropics” in the hall, so they had to remove apart of the ceiling to decrease the temperature.

In autumn 1951the machine executed a complex program rather stabile.


Finally all thetests were over and on December, 15 the MESM was put into operation.

If to remember those short terms the MESM wasprojected, assembled, and debugged — in two years — and taking intoconsideration that only 12 people (including Lebedev) took part in the creatingwho were helped by 15 engineers we shall see that S.A.Lebedev and his teamaccomplished a feat (200 engineers and many workers besides 13 main leaderstook part in the creation of the first American computer ENIAC).

As life haveshowed the foundations of the computer-building laid by Lebedev are used inmodern computers without any fundamental changes. Nowadays they are well known:

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such devices an arithmetic andmemory input-output and control ones should be a part of a computerarchitecture;

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the program of computing isencoded and stored in the memory as numbers;

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the binary system should beused for encoding the numbers and commands;

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the computations should be madeautomatically basing on the program stored in the memory and operations oncommands;

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besides arithmetic, logicaloperations are used: comparisons, conjunction, disjunction, and negation;

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the hierarchy memory method isused;

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the main fault of The 70s
the years of “might-have-been hopes”


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The computerization of national economy wasconsidered as one of the most essential tasks. The decision to create theUnited system of computers — the machines of new generation on integrals.

The USA were the first to create the families of computers. In 1963-64 theIBM Company worked out the IBM-360 system. It comprised the models withdifferent capacities for which a wide range of software was created.

A decision concerning the third generation ofcomputers (their structure and architecture) was to be made in the USSR in thelate 60s.

But instead of making the decision based on thescientific grounds concerning the future of the United system of computers theMinistry of Electronic Industry issued the administrative order to copy theIBM-360 system. The leaders of the Ministry did not take into consideration theopinion of the leading scientists of the country.

Despite the fact that there were enough grounds forthinking the 70s would bring new big progresses, those years were the step backdue to the fault way dictated by the highest authorities from above.


Thecomparison of the computer development
in the usa and ukraine

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It also should be noticed that in America they paidmore attention to the development of computers for civil and later personaluse. But in Ukraine the attention was mainly focused on the military andindustrial needs.

Another interesting aspect of the Ukrainiancomputer development was the process of the 70s when “sovietizing” of theIBM-360 system became the first step on the way of weakening of positionsachieved by the Soviet machinery construction the first two decades of itsdevelopment. The next step that led to the further lag was the mindless copyingby the SU Ministry of Electronic Industry and putting into production the nextAmerican elaborations in the field of microprocessor equipment.

The natural final stage was buying in enormousquantities of foreign computers last years and pressing to the deep backgroundour domestic researches, and developments, and the computer-building industryon the whole.

Another interesting aspect of the Ukrainiancomputer development was the process of the 70s when the “sovietising” of theIBM-360 system became the first step on the way of weakening of positions,achieved by the Soviet machinery construction of the first two decades of itsdevelopment. The next step that led to the further lag was the mindless copyingof the next American elaborations in the field of microprocessor technique bythe Ministry of Computer Industry.



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First of all, I would like to say that at the firststages the two countries rubbed shoulders with each other. But then, at acertain stage the USSR was sadly mistaken having copied the IBM-360 out of datetechnology. Estimating the discussion of possible ways of the computertechnique development in the former USSR in late 1960s — early 1970s from thetoday point of view it can be noticed that we have chosen a worse if not theworst one. The only progressive way was to base on our domestic researches andto collaborate with the west-European companies in working out the newgeneration of machines. Thus we would reach the world level of production, andwe would have a real base for the further development together with leadingEuropean companies.

Unfortunately the last twenty years may be calledthe years of “unrealized possibilities”. Today it is still possible to changethe situation; but tomorrow it will be too late.

Will the new times come? Will there be a newrenaissance of science, engineering and national economy as it was in thepost-war period? Only one thing remains for us — that is to wait, to hope andto do our best to reach the final goal.

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<span Times New Roman",«serif»">1.<span Times New Roman""> 

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">Б.М.Малиновський“Історія обчислювальної техніки в особах”, Київ, 1995.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">2.<span Times New Roman""> 

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">Stephen G.Nash “A History of Scientific Computing”, ACM Press History Series, New York,1990.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">3.<span Times New Roman""> 

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">Енциклопедіякібернетики, Київ, 1985.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">4.<span Times New Roman""> 

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">The AmericaHouse Pro-Quest Database: “Byte” Magazine, September, 1995.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">5.<span Times New Roman""> 

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">WilliamAspray, Charles Babbage Institute Reprint Series in the History of Computing 7,Los Angeles, 1985.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">6.<span Times New Roman""> 

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">D.J.Frailey“Computer Architecture” in Encyclopedia of Computer Science.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">7.<span Times New Roman""> 

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">Stan Augarten“Bit by Bit: An Illustrated History of Computers”, New York, 1984.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">8.<span Times New Roman""> 

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">Michael R.Williams “A History of Computing Technology”, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,1985.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">“Від БЕСМ до супер-ЕОМ. Сторінки історіїІнституту ІТМ та ОТ ім. С.О. Лебедева АН УРСР у спогадах співробітників”під редакцією Г.Г. Рябової, 1988