Реферат: Рекламирование (Advertising)


            As webegin to examine how advertising works and how we may best make it work for us,it’s important that we first view in proper perspective this marketing activitythat has been going for so many centuries. Let’s look at advertising in thepast, at the part it has played historically in our lives. Advertising haschanged, as we have changed. If you had been a young Roman soldier in theoccupation army in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Gaul</st1:place>, spending an afternoonat the chariot races at the stadium at Names, you would have been exposed toadvertising.

            Ifyou, in your former life, were a tall straight-nosed Grecian beauty strollingthe streets of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Corinth</st1:place></st1:City>,with your market basket on your ears would have assailed by the cries of streetvendors broad calling their wares for sale. On walls and buildings you wouldhave read advertisements of a wide variety of products and, most likely, therewould have been some “lost – and – found” notices too.

            Becausethe notices on Roman walls often began with the Latin words si quis (If anyone) as in ‘If anyone hasinformation’, or, “If anyone wishes to obtain”, for many centuries afterwardany poster advertisement in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>or in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>America</st1:place></st1:country-region>was known as a siqui?

                        The Advertising Broker

            Itwas in this time of the growing attractiveness of periodicals to the nationaladvertiser that the modern advertising agency had its beginning. Brokerspurchased space from publications at whole sale rates, and resold space to theadvertiser at whatever markup the cold demand.

            In alarger sense, however, the agency’s chief service in this early period was topromote the general use of advertising, and to aid in discovering cheaper andmore effective ways of marketing goods.

            Theshift from “advertising broker” to “advertising agent” was very important; theemphasis had been changed from working for the interests of the publication toserving the interests of the advertiser. Thus today all of the advertisingagency’s services are directed toward helping the advertiser achieve hismarketing goals.


                        Advertising Grows up


            Inthe fist decades of the 20th century, advertising underwent twomarked and significant changes. The first was the recognition by advertising ofits responsibilities to society and business. This recognition ofresponsibility was evidenced by the formation of numerous organizations whosegoals were the improvement in the effectiveness of advertising and control overits taste and honesty.

            Thesecond significant development in the early 1900s was the emergence of thenation and regional advertising agency in much the same forms as we recognizeit today. Advertising agencies are tightly geared just to provide theadvertiser with all those services that will enable him to invest hisadvertising dollars most effectively.

                        The New Face of Advertising

            Thethird development in modern advertising, and perhaps the most interesting andsignificant of all, occurred in the first decades of the last century. Theiringenuity, imagination, and restless curiosity changed the face of advertising.It changed from something that was basically a ‘notice’ or a simply anattention-caller, to a logical, carefully thought-out selling tool fullyintegrated with the marketing strategy.

                        The Marketplace and What Happens in it

             There’re as many definition of marketing asthere are authors of textbooks on the subject. Let’s look at a couple of them:

            RichardR. Still and Edward W. Cundiff call it “the business process by which productsare matched with markets and through which transfers of owner ship are affected”.

            WilliamJ. Stanton calls marketing “a total system of interacting business activitiesdesigned to plan, price, promote, and distribute want-satisfying products andservices to present and potential customers” (more precise definition).

            TheAmerican Marketing Association defines marketing as being made up of ‘theperformance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and servicesfrom producer to consumer or user’.

            Thisis a simple explanation of what happens. The key phrases are: ‘from producer toconsumer ’, and ‘the flow of goods’.

            Thisis the fate of every product as it makes its way from the manufacturer’sloading platform to its final destination – into your hands. A great manythings happen to it.

            Advertisingis one of the things that happen. These forces all work together.

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The quality, appearance, and performance of the product.

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How much it costs.

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Where you can buy it.

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The promotional efforts, including advertising, that help to sell it.

           Sometimesadvertising can be very important. For another product, distribution may be thevital force.

                       The Consumer and Why He Acts the Way He Does


The ‘image makers’ areall around us, and they are not confined to advertising. Publicists and press agents,retained by individuals, are paid to develop or change images. The <st1:place w:st=«on»>Hollywood</st1:place> drum – beaters have in the past created ‘sexkittens’ out of some very ordinary country girls.

Corporate Images

People, through their ownefforts or the efforts of others, can reflect a certain image. Business canalso fix a certain place for them in the public regard. To many large companiesthe ‘corporate image’ is very important and carefully protected. Sometimes acompany must fight to overcome an industry image. This is about corporateimages for big companies. Does this apply to a smaller businessman? Itcertainly does. When a local retailer institutes a policy of ‘return themerchandise and your money refunded with no questions asked’, the seller issaying to the consumer, “I’m the kind of strait, honest guy you can trust me”.For example, a jeweler in a small town who appears on TV every now and then,talks about his merchandise. He is talking about them with pride and affectionand knowledge. There’s absolutely nothing professional about his accent or hisdelivery. Honest jeweler with whom you’d like to do a business.


                  Trade Marks, Labels,and Logotypes

           To help remember whois doing the talking, companies andproducts have ways of branding themselves just as a rancher brands a calf sothat he can distinguish it from other ranchers’ calves.

           The ‘brands’ fall into different categories:

Brand names: Usually thisis a mad – up name which should be unique and memorable. Copywriters                          oftenspend hours thinking up new names for products. Some well – known trade names                       are Exxon, Teflon, andMaybelline.

Symbols:          These are literally ‘brands’ which could be reproduced iniron and burned into surface.

Names:            To help keep its name memorable.

Logotypes:                            Youwill usually find these at the base of the advertisement, and often they are a                                               combination of the company name, asymbol, and slogan if they have one.

Labels:                       By meansof color and design, labels brand a family of products, such as Campbell                                 Soup,Maxwell House Coffee.

Trade characters:        The symbol can be a human or a cartoon character.

Layout design:           Sometimes a brand will immediately identify itself by thedesign of its advertising                    layout.

Slogans:                      These are catchy, memorable lines that put a‘handle’ on the company. For                                 example Coca Cola’s “It’s the realthing” or “You can be sure if it’s Wasting                              House”.

           It’s important to be very careful while thinking up abrand name for a product. Many brand names have been thought up, registered,and never used. All slogans, symbols, names, and so on, must be ‘searched’.

                       The Different Kindsof Advertising


           Advertising people recognize a number of different kindsof forms of advertising. They are differentiated from one another according tothe different jobs they are designed to do. Now let’s take a look at thesedifferent kinds of advertising, and we will fix in our minds the role they playin the marketing process.

                       Institutional or Corporate Advertising


           This often projects an image of the company. It’s just asimportant for a company to have a good character and a good reputation as it isfor individual business person, and for exactly for the same reasons. Your namehas a great deal to do with the consumer – buying decision. The fact is, allcompanies have characters and personalities of their own, and thosecharacteristics affect their relationship with buyers and sellers alike.

                       Trade or Professional Advertising   


           Ordinarily you don’t see trade or professional advertisingunless you pick up a publication directed to a particular trade or aprofession. There’re a great many of these publications, and manufacturers fillthem with advertising addressed to retailers. The messages to the retailer arevery different from those addressed to the consumers. In trade advertising, themanufacturer tells the retailer what he can do for him in terms of  the marketing mix – new, attractive products,money – making volume, and profit spreads, ingenious distribution plans, andexciting promotional programs.

                       Retail Advertising


           You see and hear retail advertising every day. Without it,most newspapers and radio stations would not be able to exist. And ourtelevision station might find itself somewhat pressed. In most cities of anysize, department store advertising represents an important source of income fornewspapers.

                       Promotional Retail Advertising  

           At Christmas, at back – to – school time, and at manyother times during the year, we can see a special kind of retail advertising.This is advertising that does not directly advertise the products, butadvertises the promotion of a product or group of products. If a famous authoris going to sign autographs at the book store, or if a chef is going to giveomelet cooking lessons in the kitchen – wares section of the department store,every effort must be made to let as many people as possible know about theevent. Often store promotions are sponsored by manufacturers. A cosmeticmanufacturer may make a ‘beauty consultant’ available. A manufacturer ofwomen’s sports car may provide a traveling fashion show.  If so, the supplier often pays for all orpart of the promotion.

                       Industrial Advertising


           Industrial advertising is simply advertising directed to acustomer who happens to be an industry. Most people are not particularlyconscious of industrial advertising because they have little occasion to seethe publications in which it appears. But there’s hardly an industry we mightthink of – from steel to coal, or from perfume to fishing – that doesn’t haveits own ‘trade book’ devoted to the interests of the industry. Some of thebusinesses that advertise in a publication directed to the fishing industryare: boat builders, rope makers, engine manufacturers, makers of depth –sounding equipment, marine hardware manufacturers, paint manufacturers, andpublishers of nautical charts and books.

                       Trade Association Advertising


             If you work for a manufacturer, the chancesare very good that your company pays annual dues, is devoted to your broadindustry wide interests.

           This kind of advertising, which encourages the consumptionor use of cotton, leather, bananas, or mild, is known to marketing people as‘primary advertising’. It’s differentiated from ‘selective advertising’ thatpromotes a particular brand of cotton, leather, and so on.

                       National Consumer Advertising

           National consumer advertising is the kind that makes upthe bulk of the advertising you read in your magazines and see on TV. For themost part it is product advertising by the manufacturer, appealing directly tothe person who will make the purchase at the store.

                       The People Who Make Advertising


           It can make us be surprised to know how many people in ourhometown are concerned with the making and running of advertising.

           Not knowing who can do what, and for how much, can turnout to be expansive. The day may not be far off when you will be given theresponsibility for producing a booklet for your company or getting a 30 –second television commercial made. It is important to know the services thatare available to you in your area, and to be acquainted with their individualcapabilities.


           The principle of the advertising agency should andprobably will have a good grasp of marketing theory. This person willundoubtedly have a good knowledge of the marketing situation in the communityand in the region he is working in. He should be able to sit down with thesales manager and to work out a sensible marketing plan for the product he willadvertise. He should know the demographics of the region, and the tastes andbackground of its people.


           The advertising agency should be able to provide thecompany with headlines and body text that are attractive, interesting, and hardselling.



           Attractive, clean, well – designed layouts should bepresented to the company for each ad the agency makes.

            In addition, theadvertising agency should have the capability of purchasing photographs,drawings, and other art work for the company.



           The company is going to need expert advice on the amountof advertising the company will run, and where to run it. The advertisingagency should know media (all the vehicles by which advertising is brought tothe consumers); have the means for placing orders for time and space, andpromptly and accurately provide the company with invoices and records.

                       Radio – TV


           The agency will be able to have prepared and produced forthe company radio and television commercials of competitive creative abilityand quality and in a wide price range.

                       How Advertising IsWritten


                       The Copywriter


           Copywriter is the person who conceives and writesadvertising. The responsibility for writing ads and commercials rests with thecopywriter. But in smaller agencies this task is often performed by someone whomight also be an account executive.

           In fact, in times when agency profits are slimming, eventhe larger agencies begin to seek out people who can be both account executivesand copywriters.

                       What Does The Copywriter Do?


           The term copywriter is not an exact job description. Itcould mean ‘the person who writes the words that go into the ad or commercial’.But that is not quite it. It’s not as simple as that. The writer doesn’t justwrite words. He or she creates selling ideas that are expressed in words and soundsand pictures.

           Fortunately the copywriter doesn’t have to work alone – atleast not in big agencies. Before and after the act of getting something downon paper, there are account executives, research directors, marketingdirectors, and art directors with solace, help, and advice. But, of course, thegreatest deal of the work belongs to the copywriter.

                       What Is a Copywriter?


           Writing advertising copy is hard work. It is hard workbecause

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it is constantlydemanding;

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it calls for the commandof a variety of writing styles;

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it calls for a peculiarcombination of natural talents and inclination that rarely occurs in oneperson.

                       How an Ad Is Written


           Before a copywriter gets to the point of actually puttingon paper the words for the ad or commercial, he has gone through several steps.

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He has taken a good lookat the market segment, and knows the kind of people he will be talking to.

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He has diligentlysearched for the Main Attraction, and has it firmly fixed in mind.

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He has also sought outthe Subsidiary Main Attraction – the other advantages that are built into theproduct.

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He has determined themost important benefits that his product can offer the buyer.

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In terms of psychological“needs and desires”, he has calculated which of these benefits will have thegreatest appeal to the consumer.

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He has begun to run overin his mind the ways in which this appeal may be expressed.

           It is their work to sit and think, hoping to catch thatflash of inspiration that will make the reader stay and read.


How Good Ads Act

           It is important to know the way advertising achieves thefive basic steps of getting attention, creating interest, stimulating desire,imparting conviction, and asking for the order. It’s not enough that an adshould take the required steps. The real test comes while realizing how wellthe steps were done.

                       Getting Attention


           Of course, we have seen and read very many ads, even if weweren’t interested in them. Every time something makes us to read theseadvertisements. So it can be interesting what it might have been.

           THE HEADLINES:

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The headline talkeddirectly to you. Chances are, it used the pronouns “you” or “your”. But, itdidn’t leave any doubt that it was talking right at and to you – and notsomeone down the street.

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The headline said it wasgoing to do something for you. Or, itwas going to show you how you could do something for yourself. The world isfull of people who want to know how to do things – how to be happier, how tohave a clearer complexion, how to be more secure etc.

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The headline made youwonder. “What’s it all about?” Maybe it offered you something brand – new,different, better, or something you’d never been able to get hands on before.That’s why we will see headline words such as “At last”, “Now”, “New”,“Announcing”, “Here’s”.

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The headline gives you apromise of the good things to come. For example, it can be a soap, which iskinder to your skin or a cream, which makes you to get thinner and thinner. Thecopywriter probably has some very good and interesting things to say about theproduct.


                       Creating Interest

           Sometimes people complain about ads and commercials thatbore them stiff. They hate those ads. So the copywriters try to find ways tomake people be interested in the product they are advertising. It’s one of themost difficult things for copywriters.

                       Stimulating Desire

           A good piece of copy makes you want what it has to sell.This, as every good salesperson knows, is the heart of the selling proposition.

           It is not enough to offer a furniture polish that willmake tables glow more attractively; the ad must make the buyer see herselfbeing complimented by her friends. It is not enough to save money or invest itwisely; ad must make the customer see themselves at the rail of cruise ship,reaping the benefits of such a saving or investment program.

           Time after time, all through the history of advertising,the most successful ads as measured by their coupon returns have made theprospect see him.


                       What It Takes to Be a Copywriter

           Writing successful advertising copy is a tough anddemanding job. It takes knowledge of basic selling fundamentals; a polishedwriting talent; the opportunity to have learned and absorbed and benefited fromthe coaching of the best of the business; and it takes experience.

           There are people around, including advertising people, whofeel that writing successful advertising copy is not so very difficult. Butstudying the procedure of making ads we will understand that the copywriterpicks up a pencil with the seriousness of taking a scalpel.

           Writing a successful ad is much more difficult thanremoving an appendix; and it takes at least as much skills, knowledge, andexperience. Fortunately, bungling the copywriting job won’t cost someone’s life– just a few thousand dollars in lost sales, somebody’s job or business.

Advertising Design,Art Director and Copywriter

           Nothing happens with the piece of copy until someonebreaths life into it. Nothing happens with the radio commercial until soundtechnicians and musicians and actors do their work. And the greatest piece ofnewspaper or magazine copy is lifeless until someone visualizes its appearanceand arranges its parts in the most effective way possible.

           That “someone” is called an art director.

           The fact is that no two segments of an advertising agencyhave so much in common as art and copy – although this may come as news to someart directors and writers. The mode of expression is different (one use atypewriter, the other a drawing pencil), but the goal is identical. Both are inthe business of getting a message across with a fresh approach.

                       Making Layout

           When art director and copywriter are satisfied that theyhave a good visualization for their ad, the art director proceeds to make alayout. The layout is drawn to the actual dimensions of the finished ad.

           Art directors recognize a number of different elementsthat may play a part in the making of a layout. They are:

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Headlines                                                                          Picture caption

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Subhead                                                                            Trademark

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Main illustration                                                               Slogan

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Subsidiaryillustration                                                      Logotype or signature                                          

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Body text                                                                           White space

           Of course, all these do not occur in every layout; but itis the art director’s job to arrange the elements so that the design of the adis eye – catching and attractive.

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