Реферат: Куча топиков по английскому языку

Holidays in Great Britain.

There are some holidays in G.B. They areChristmas day, Boxing Day, new years day, Easter, mayday, spring bank holidayand simmer bank holiday. Public holidays in G.B. are called bank holidaysbecause the banks as wall as most of the offices and shops are closed. The mostpopular holiday is Xmas. Every year the people of Norway give the city ofLondon the present. It is a big Xmas tree and it stands in Trufalgersquare. Central streets are beautifully decorated. Before Xmas groups ofsingers go from house to house. They collect money for charity and sing carolstraditional Xmas songs. Many churches hold a carol serves on the Sunday beforeXmas. The fun starts the night before, on the 24 of December. This is the daywhen people decorate their trees. Children hang stocking at the end of theirbeds, hoping that Santa Claus will come at night and full them with toys andsweets. Xmas is a family holiday. Relatives’ prepare for the big Xmas dinner ofturkey and Xmas pudding and every one gives and gets presents. The 26 ofDecember, Boxing Day are an extra holiday after Xmas. This is the time to meetfriends or sit at home and watch TV. New years day is less popular in Britainthen Xmas. Besides public holidays there are some special holidays in Britain.One of them takes place on the 5 of November. On that day in 1605 Guy Fawkestried to blow up the House of Parliament and kill a King James the first. Buthe didn’t succeeded. The King’s man found the bomb and took Guy Fawkes to thetower. Sins what day the British celebrate the 5 of November.

There are also smaller holidays in G.B.                                         


 Mike Lomonosov is the father of the Russian sciences andoutstanding poet the founder of Russian literature. M.L. was born in <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1711 in» w:st=«on»>1711 in</st1:metricconverter> Arhangelskprovince. He liked to spend his time fishing with his father. He began to readhim self then he was a little boy. He wanted to study and then he was 19 hewent on foot to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>.He decided to enter the Slavic-Greek-Lateen academy. He entered it and six earslater in 1736 he was sent abroad to complete his studies in chemistry andmining. L worked hard and he became a great scientist. He was a physicist apainter and astronomer, a geographer a historian and a states man. M.L. made atelescope; he observed a lot of stars and planets with his telescope. L wrote afirst scientific grammar of Russian language. He wrote many poems. L build afactory near <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Petersburg</st1:place></st1:City>.It was a factory there glass was produced. He made a portrait of Peter thefirst of pieces of glass. L was a founder of the first <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Russian</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>.This University is named after L and it is situated in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>. M.L was died in 1765 but people knowand remember him. 


<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City></st1:place>.

<st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City>is a capital of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:country-region></st1:place>,it’s political, economic, commercial and cultural center. It was founded 8centuries age by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. Gradually thecity becomes more and more powerful. In the 16th century Ivan theTerrible Moscow become the capital of the new united state.

 Now <st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City> isone of the largest cities in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>. Its totalarea is about nine hundred square kilometers. Population of the city is over 8million. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City></st1:place>is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of the <st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City> is <st1:place w:st=«on»>Red Square</st1:place>. Itis more historic associations than any other place in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City></st1:place>. The main Kremlin tower, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Spasskaya</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Tower</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, has become asymbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see oldcathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Grate, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Congress</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>,the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell,the biggest cannon and bell in the world. There are a lot of beautiful places,cathedrals, churches and monuments in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City></st1:place>.There are more then 80 museums in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City></st1:place>.The largest museums are Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery.  <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City></st1:place> is famous for it’stheaters. The best-known of the is Bolshoi OperaHouse. Drama theaters and studios are also very popular. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City></st1:place> is a city of the students. There areover 80 higher educational institutions in it.      

My family.

 I am Zhilin Andrey. Andrey is my name and Zhilin ismy surname. I am seventeen years old. I want to tell you a few words about myfamily. My family is not large. I have got mother, father and grandmother.There are four of us in the family.

   Firstof all some words about my parents. My mother is a teacher of biology. Sheworks in a school. She likes her profession. She is a good-looking woman withbrown hair. She is 44 but she looks much younger.

 Myfather is computer-programmer. He is forty-six. My father often sings and whenwe are at home and have some free time I play the guitar and we sing together.He is also handy with many things. When he was small he liked to takeeverything to pieces. My grandmother told me a story that ones my father triedto repair their kitchen clock but with out success. They had to give it to arepairman. But it happened a long time ago. Now he can fix almost everything.

 Myparents have been married for 18 ears. They have much in common, but they havedifferent views on music, books, and films. For example my father likes horrorfilms and my mother likes soap operas. My father is fond of tennis. My motherdoesn’t go in for sports. 

 Myparents are hard working people. My mother keeps house and takes care of myfather and me. She is very good at cooking. My grandmother is a pensioner. Shelives with us and helps to run the house. She is fond of knitting.

 I wantto become a student. I’d like to learn foreign languages. I always try to be ina good mood.

 We havegot a lot of relatives.                                   

My favorite TV program.

The most popular entertainment in our home lifeis television. We have a choice between five channels ORT, RTR and 3 commercialchannels. There is also a cable TV station in our town. Television plays animportant role in our life. It informs people about current events bothnational and international, the latest achievements in science and culture, andoffers some programs, which are both interesting and stimulating. Every day wecan see different tips of programs on TV. News is broadcast at regularintervals. They also present operas, ballets, music concerts and various shows.Broadcast for schools are produced on five days of the week, during schoolhours. In the late afternoon and early evening TV channels showed specialprograms for children. In the evenings and at weekends there are broadcasts ofsports events. A large time of TV evening’s time is occupied by films andserials, but as for me I like quizzes. A quizzes–program is a question and ananswer competition which offers money and other prizes and to the winners. Suchprograms as “Wonders field”, “Brain ring”, What, Where, When”, “Guess themelody” are me favorite ones, because they are both informative andinteresting. But bast of all I like the programs of“Travels club”, because it gives me a chance to travel of other the world without living home. Far away countries and their customs and traditional are comeinto my living room.                     


My flat.

I live in a 5-stored block of flats in Yushno – Sakhalinsk. It’s not avery picturesque plaice but we have a yard and a Kodak Express under thewindow.

My flat is on the third floor. It’s verycomfortable and well planed. I have all modern conveniences, such as centralheating, electricity, cold and hot running water and a telephone. There arethree rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a balcony in it. The largest room in myflat is the living room. My family uses it as a sitingroom. There is a sofa, two armchairs, a coffee table, a TV set and a VSR in it.

 We havetwo small rooms in our flat and one of them is my. It is not big but very cosy. There is a wardrobe near the wall and a desk near thewindow. My bad is at the left corner. I like my room wary much because it is myroom.

 Ourkitchen is not very large but light. It’s very well equipped. We have got arefrigerator, a microwave oven, a coffee maker and a toaster. In evenings welike have tea and have rest in it.                             

My school.

I had just left school and I would like to tellyou a few words about it. I went to school in 1988. This school I studied in isa three stored building. When you enter the school yard you can see poplartrees and beautiful flowers. To the right of the school building there is a bigplayground. When the weather was fine we had our classes in physical trainingthere. When you enter the school you come in to a large hall and a cloak-room,there we left our coats, rain-coats and jackets. On the ground floor where isalso a school library and a gym. The class rooms, the assembly hall, theteachers room and the canteen are on the upper floors. On the walls of thecorridors you can see the portraits of famous writers, poets, scientists andour school wall newspaper. It is done by the pupils of our school and has a lotof interesting things to read. I learned different subjects at school: Russian,English, maths, physics, chemistry, geography,history and some others.

My favorite subjects were Russian and English.I also liked literature. I was good at these subjects and usually got goodmarks in them. I worked hard at English lessons: read and translated texts,made up dialogues, did a lot of ex, but bast of all Iliked different tests, I was fond of grammar. But I was poor in chemistry. Ialways failed to learn formulas and terms properly. I liked my class, everybodywas so friendly easy to get along with. I was on good terms with my class maidsand we often spend our free time together.                                                           


 Winter,spring, summer and autumn are the seasons of the year. December, January andFebruary are winter months The weather is cold usually it snows. The days areshort and the nights are long. The rivers and lakes freeze and we can goskating and skiing. March, April and May are spring months. It is very niceseason. The weather is fine it is warm. There are many green trees in thestreets in the parks and in the yards. Some time it rains but usually the sunshines brightly. The birds return from the hot countries and make their nests.June, July and August are summer months. It is hot or warm. The days are longand the nights are short. There are many nice flowers in the parks and squaresin the summer. The pupils do not go to school they have the summer holidays.June is the first month of summer. We have the longest day and the shortestnight in the year on the 21st-22nd of June. July is the middle month of summer.It is hot and sun shines brightly. The sky is blue and cloudless. August is thelast summer month some times it is cold in August, but it is many mushrooms,berries and fruits. September, October and November are autumn months. Theweather is changeable. It often rains. You can see yellow, red, brown leaveseverywhere. It is time for gathering the harvest.               


Cites of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>USA</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

Amounts large and famous American cites are <st1:City w:st=«on»>Chicago</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Boston</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Philadelphia</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Los Angeles</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>San Francisco</st1:City> and <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State>. <st1:State w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:State> isthe capital of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>USA</st1:place></st1:country-region>.It is situated on the Potomac River in the <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>District of Columbia</st1:place></st1:State>. D. <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State> chose the place. The city wasfounded in 1791 and named after the first president. Now <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State> is the residents of the presidentand the congress. The center of the city is on Capital Hill. This buildinghouses both the senate and a House of Representatives. The White House is oneof the oldest buildings in the city. It is the president’s residents. <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State> is a largescientific and cultural center. There are five universities in the city. Thenational academy of sciences and the library of congress are in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State> too. Thenational museum, the old and new national galleries of art, Washington,Jefferson and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Lincoln</st1:place></st1:City>memorials are among the city sites.

<st1:State w:st=«on»>New York</st1:State>is the largest city in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>USA</st1:place></st1:country-region>.It is an economic, financial, scientific and cultural center. Dutch settlersfounded the city in 17 century. The heart of the <st1:State w:st=«on»>New York</st1:State>is <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Manhattan</st1:place></st1:City>.It was hear that the Dutch built the first building of the town. The name WallStreet remained from our days. The business center of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State> is near Wall Street. Another famousstreet is Broadway. It is the longest and the widest street in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State>. It is thestreet there most famous theaters are situated. <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State> is the city of famous skyscrapers.The highest buildings are <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Impure</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Building</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>and the united national building.        



Sports in our life.

Sport is very important in our life. It ispopular among young and old people. Many people do morning exercises, jog inthe morning, train them self’s in clubs and different sections. Other peoplelike sport too; they only watch sports game on TV and listen the sports news.Whey prefers reading interesting stores about sports men but they do not go infor sports.

 Physical training is an important subject in school. Pupils havephysical training twice a week. Boys and girls play volleyball and basketballat the lessons. There is a sport ground near our school and school children goin for sports in the open air. A lot of different competitions are held atschool. A great number of pupils take part in them. All participants try to getgood results and become winner.

 Sporthelps people to keep in good health. If you go in for sports you don’t catchcold. Children and grown-ups must take care of they health and do morningexercises regularly. There are some popular kinds of sport in our country:football, volleyball, hockey, gymnastics, skiing and other. Athletic is one ofthe most popular kinds of sport. It includes running, jamming and others.

 Myfavorite sport is swimming. I go to the swimming pool twice a week. I prefer torest by the lake or river and swim there. My friend goes in for boxing. He is agood boxer. His hobby helps him in his every day life.                           

The Commonwealth of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

 TheCommonwealth of Australia is a self-government federal state. It has sixstates: <st1:State w:st=«on»>new south Wales</st1:State>, <st1:State w:st=«on»>Victoria</st1:State>,<st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Queens</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>land</st1:PlaceType>,<st1:State w:st=«on»>south Australia</st1:State>, <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>western Australia</st1:place></st1:State> and two internalterritories. It is situated in the southwestern of the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Pacific Ocean</st1:place>. The area of this country has 7000000 square kilometers. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region> isthe largest island in the world and the smallest continent. The Dutch were thefirst Europeans to visit <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region>.In the 1770 the English captain James Cook discovered the East Coast ofAustralia. Nearly 20 millions people live in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region>. The capital of thecountry is <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Canberra</st1:place></st1:City>,this city become a capital in 1927. Federal government works in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Canberra</st1:place></st1:City> in thegovernment buildings. There are no industrial plants in the town. Thepopulation of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Canberra</st1:place></st1:City>is about 300 000 people. There are many sits in the city. They are thebuildings of Australian academy of sings, the Australian national universityand others. There are two big industrial cities in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region>: Sydney and Melbourne.Australian climate is dry and warm. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region> is situated in theSouthern Hemisphere and that is why it has summer when we have winter. Januaryis the hottest month in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

 <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region> isseparated from many countries. The animals in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region> have developeddifferently. They are interesting. You can see the dingo, wild dog which killedothers animals in night, the kangaroo and many parrots there. There are manyand lakes in the country. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region>is an industrial country. It has coil, nickel, zinc and gold. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region> isone of the most important produces of metals and minerals. It exports woolproduction, meat, fruit and sugar. The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region> is situated near theocean. Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane are the ports of the country. There aremany universities, theaters and museums in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region>. There are some politicalparties in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:country-region>: theliberal party, the labor party and two socialist parties of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Australia</st1:place></st1:country-region>. 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain andNorthern Ireland.

 TheUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on two largeislands called the <st1:place w:st=«on»>British Isles</st1:place>. The largerisland is <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:country-region>,which consists of three parts: <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region> and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:country-region></st1:place>.The smaller island is <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:country-region></st1:place>and there are about five thousand small islands.

  Thecountry’s shores are washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Irish Sea</st1:place>. The English channel separate <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place> from the continent.

  Thetotal area of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>U.K.</st1:country-region></st1:place>is 244.00 square kilometers with a population of 56 million. It is one of themost populated countries in the world. The average density of population isvery high: about 220 people per square kilometer. The greater part of thepopulation is urban. About 80 percent of people live in numerous towns andcities. More then seven million people live in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City></st1:place> area. Very often the inhabitants ofThe United Kingdom and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:country-region></st1:place> are called English.

  Thesurface of the <st1:place w:st=«on»>British Isles</st1:place> varies very mach.There are many mountains in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:country-region> and northwest of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>but they are not very high. Ben Nevis in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region></st1:place> is the highest mountain.The northern part of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region>is mountainous and is called the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Highlands</st1:place>. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region></st1:place>is also famous for its beautiful lakes, which are called Lochs.

  Themountains in G.B. are not very high. There are many rivers in G.B., but theyare not very long. The Themes is the deepest, the longest and the mostimportant river in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>.

  Theclimate of G.B. is mild. It is not very cold in winter and hot in summer. Theaverage temperature in January is about <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«5C» w:st=«on»>5C</st1:metricconverter> above zero. February is the coldest month inthe year. The summers are cool and rainy. July is the warmest month. There ismuch rain and flog in autumn and winter. October is the rainiest month in theyear.                             



<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region></st1:place>.

The <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region></st1:place> is composed of 50 states. Itoccupies the central part of North American continent. It borders on <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Canada</st1:country-region> in the north and on <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Mexico</st1:country-region></st1:place> in the south.

The waters of the Atlantic Ocean wash the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region> in the east and the waters of the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Pacific Ocean</st1:place> wash the country in the west. The HawaiianIslands are in the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Pacific Ocean</st1:place>. They becamethe 50th state of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region></st1:place> in 1958. The total area of thecountry is 9000 square kilometers. The population is more then 200 millionpeople.

<st1:State w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:State>is the capital of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region></st1:place>.English is the official language. The flag of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region></st1:place> known as the “Stars andStripes”.

 TheRocky Mountains extend from <st1:State w:st=«on»>Alaska</st1:State> through the<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region> to <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Mexico</st1:country-region></st1:place>, but greater part of thecountry is a plain. Where are many rivers in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region>and the longest is <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:State w:st=«on»>Mississippi</st1:State></st1:place>.The country has every variety of climates: from climate of the tropics to thatof the Atlantic regions. The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>USA</st1:place></st1:country-region>economy grew greatly during the world wars. When big American monopolists gotgreat profits.

The country is rich in mineral resources, heavyindustry prevails in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>USA</st1:place></st1:country-region>economy, including mining metallurgical, machine building, chemical industries.Light and food industries are wheel developed too.

The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>USA</st1:place></st1:country-region> is the federate republic. Thepresident is the heard of the state. He is also commander –in –chief of armyand navy. The highest legislative organ in the country is the congress, whichconsists of the senate and House of Representatives.                               


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