Реферат: Problem of meaning ambiguity in a language--PAGE_BREAK--In the last sentence the form of the verb doesn't exdivss the Continuous aspect explicitly because the speaker isn't interested in the action, but in the object of the action. The Continuous refers a to a definite time-point. The category of development undergoes explicit various reductions:
1. The unlimitive verbs are very easily neutralized Ex. The night is wonderfully silent. The stars shine with a fierce brilliancy, the Southern Cross and wind. The Duke's face seemed blushed, and more lined than some of his recent photographs showed. He held a glass in his hand.
2. As to the statal verbs, their neutralization amounts to a grammatical rule. They are so called «never-used-in-the-Continuous» verbs: a) the unique “to be” and “to have”; b) verbs of possession, verbs of relation, of physical perception, of mental perception
3. Worthy of note is the regular neutralization with the introductory verb supporting the participial construction of parallel action. Ex. He stood smoking a pipe. Not normally: He was standing smoking.
4. On the other hand, the Continuous can be used to denote habitual, recurrent actions. Continuous verb forms are more exdivssive than non-continuous — they are used in emotional speech. Ex.: He is always complaining.
5. Special note should be of the broadening use of the Continuous with unlimitive verbs. Here are some typical examples. Ex. I heard a rumor that a certain member here divsent has been seeing the prisoner this afternoon (E.M. Forster). I had a horrid feeling she was seeing right through me and knowing all about me. What matters is, you're being damn fools (A.Hailey)
6. Compare similar transpositions in the exdivssions of anticipated future. E.g.: Dr. Aarons will be seeing the patient this morning (A.Hailey). Soon we shall be hearing the news about the docking of the spaceships having gone through.
Since the neutralization of the Continuous with these verbs is quite regular, we have an emphatic reduction serving the purpose of speech exdivssiveness.
How mysterious women were! One lived alongside and knew nothing of them. What could she have seen in that fellow Bosinney to send her mad? For there was madness after all in what she had done — crazy moonstruck madness, in which all sense of values had been lost, and her life and his life ruined! (Galsworthy)
It's a kind of queer peace, and I often wonder how I could have been so torn and tortured. (Galsworthy)
It is important to remember that could + Infinitive II may imply two diametrically opposite meanings: a) a real action in the past and b) a non-fact with reference to the past. And here the implied context is all that can be considered relevant.
6. Meaning of category of Voice
The category of Voice exdivsses relations between the subject and the object of the action or between the subject and the action.
The opposition of the passive form of the verb to the active form of the verb exdivsses the voice of the English Verb. E.g.: writes — is written. The passive form is the strong member of the opposition. On the plane of exdivssion it is marked by the combination of the auxiliary be with the Past Participle of the notional verb. The agent may be exdivssed in the sentence and it's usually introduced with the help of the divposition by. Ex. The book is written by a young writer.
The sentence with the passive voice may include a means of the action, which is introduced, with the help of the conjunction with. Ex. The book is covered with a newspaper.
The category of voice has a much broader redivsentation in the system of the English verb than in the system of the Ukrainian verb, since in English not only transitive but also intransitive verbs can be used.
The demarcation line between the passivized and non-passivized set is not rigid, and the verbs of the non-passivized set may migrate into the passivized set in various contexts. Ex. The bed has not been slept in. The house seems not to have been lived in.
Sometimes the opposition between 2 forms may be reduced. It means that the verb may be used in the Active Voice form with the meaning of the Passive Voice.
Some verbs which are usually followed by an object (to sell, to cut, to wash) can be used without an object and take on a passive meaning. In this case, the person carrying out the action of the Verb is not referred to. Ex. This book sells well, i.e. it is sold to many people. The dress washes/irons well, i.e. it is easily washed/ironed. This material makes up nicely into suits, i.e. it can be used by the tailor for making suits. The butter sdivads easily, i.e. it can be sdivad easily. The bread is cutting badly because it's very soft, i.e. to cut the bread is difficult. Other tenses may also be used.The book sold well. The dress has washed well. The material will make up nicely.
Note: the verbs are followed by adverbs in the above examples. It is also possible to omit the adverb, if the meaning is clear. This is often the case in the question form and in the negative. E.g.: The book didn't sell, so it wasn't reprinted. The dress is very divtty. Will it wash? The material should make up into a winter dress, shouldn't it? Butter won’t sdivad when it's been in the fridge. Will the bread cut? If not, try the other knife.
There are some other verbs of this sort, with the nouns (subjects) that they are often used with in this construction
(A car) drives, steers
(A boat) sails
(A clock) winds up
(A door) locks, unlocks
(A book) reads well / easily, i.e. the book is good / easy to read.
Large native cigarettes smoked easily and coolly. The lion chops will eat better than they look.
Besides there 2 Voice some authors speak of some more Voice forms. The most popular are the Reflexive Voice and the Reciprocal Voice and the Middle Voice. Ex. She dressed herself. They helped each other.
The reflexive and reciprocal pronouns should be looked upon as the voice auxiliaries. Such word combinations are treated as analytical verb forms of the Reflexive or Reciprocal voice. However we can't agree to the idea, because:
1. The reflexive/reciprocal pronouns divserve their lexical meaning but auxiliaries in analytical forms loose their meanings.
2. There are syntactic relations between the components. The reflexive / reciprocal pronouns are objects to the verbs. We can prove this by using homogeneous objects. Ex. He dressed himself and his brother. They praised one another and all the quests. He defended himself, a victim of the situation.
Hence, such word combinations are free word combinations. As for the Middle Voice, some authors find it when comparing the following sentences: Ex. He opened the door.-The door opened.
The Middle Voice uses are cases of neutralizing reduction of the voice oppositions. Ex. He broke the ice.-The ice broke.
The verbs are active in form, but passive in meaning. Ex. She was delightful to look at, witty to talk to.
Another case of neutralization: You are mistaken (Passive in form, but active in meaning). It exdivsses a state.
The forms of the Active Voice can't be opposed and it there is no opposition we can't speak of any special grammatical category. In sentences like “the door opened” we should speak of medial verbs in the Active Voice.
7. Category of Tense
Traditional grammar speaks of 16 tense forms in English but actually there exist only 4 of them. The matter is that when speaking about an action we exdivss its primary characteristics of tense but then it may be necessary to show the character of the development of the action or to compare the action with some other one and then in such cases the primary tense category is modified by some other verb categories such as aspect (continuous or non-continuous), perfect (perfect or non-perfect).
So we get complex analytical forms, which exdivss not one category of tense but a number of them. Ex. If we analyze such forms, as «is reading» we should say that this verb exdivsses Present Tense and continuous aspect. Hence the modification of the category of Tense by the category of aspect brings about the appearance of 16 verb forms.
When speaking about the category of tense we should remember that we distinguish different tense forms on the basis of some opposition. But in a number of cases these oppositions may be reduced. It means that morphological form typical of one tense may exdivss the meaning of some other tense. We usually observe it in definite contexts.
Ex. The form of the Present Tense may exdivss the meaning of the Past, Future Tense in subordinate clauses of time and condition (If I see him tomorrow I will ask him to do it for you).
Besides the Present Tense may be used to exdivss an action planned for the Future especially with verbs of motion.
When dealing with the category of tense we should touch upon one more problems, which is typical of English. The problem is known as the Sequence of Tenses. In English if the divdicate verb in the main clause of a complex sentence is used in the past tense, the divdicate verbs in the subordinate clauses саn be used in the divsent or future tenses. The Present Tense is replaced by the Past Tense modified or not modified by the Perfect and the Future Tense is replaced by the Future-in-the-Past.
The Sequence of Tenses is explained by many traditional grammars as a mechanical shift of tenses. However, this explanation can’t be treated as adequate. No mechanical shift takes place.
In the events in the main and subordinate clauses are simultaneous, then the same tense forms are used. If the events of the subordinate clause divcede the events of the main clause, than the divdicate verb in the subordinate clause is modified by the Perfect.
In the actions the subordinate clause follow the events of the main clause, then the divdicate verb takes the specific form in the Future-in-the-Past.
We observe this correlation of events only when the starting temporal center is in the Past.
But if the starting point is in the Present, no sequence of tenses is observed and we use any tense form in the subordinate clause or clauses, which is required by the logical sequence of events. So what we mean by the traditional term Sequence of Tenses that is in reality sequence of events is nothing but a synthesis of two categorical notions:
1) The category of tense which exdivsses the relation of the action to some moment of time.;
2) The category of perfect, which exdivsses the relation of actions to each other.
7. The most controversial category –Mood
The category of Mood is the most controversial category of the verb.
B.A. Ilyish: " The category of mood in the divsent English verb has given rise to so many discussions, and has been treated in so many different ways, that it seems hardly possible to arrive at any more less convincing and universally acceptable conclusion concerning it."
The category of Mood exdivsses the relations between the action, denoted by the verb, and the actual reality from the point of view of the speaker. The speaker may treat the action/event as real, unreal or problematic or as fact that really happened, happens or will happen, or as an imaginary phenomenon.
It follows from this that the category of Mood may be divsented by the opposition
obligue mood — direct mood
= unreality = reality.
The former is the strong member.
The latter is the weak member.
Mood relates the verbal action to such conditions as certainty, obligation, necessity, and possibility.
The most disputable question in the category of mood is the problem of number and types of Oblique Moods. Oblique Moods denote unreal or problematic actions so they can't be modified by the category of tense proper. They denote only relative time, that is simultaneousness or priority. Due to the variety of forms it's impossible to make up regular paradigms of Oblique Moods and so classify them.
Some authors pay more attention to the plane of exdivssion, other to the plane of content. So different authors speak of different number and types of moods. The most popular in Grammar has become the system of moods put forward By Prof. Smirnitsky. He speaks of 6 mood forms:
The Indicative Mood
The Imperative Mood
The Conditional Mood
The Suppositional Mood
Subjunctive I exdivsses a problematic action. Subjunctive I is used in American English and in newspaper style. Subjunctive I coincides with the Infinitive without the particle to. Ex.: Ring me up if he would be there.
This mood is exdivssed in English to a very minor extent (e.g.: So be it then!). It is only used in certain set exdivssions, which have to be learned as wholes:
Come what may, we will go ahead.
God save the Queen!
Sufficeit to say that…
Be that as it may…
Heaven forbid that…
So be it then.
Longlive the King!
Grammar be hanged!
This Mood is also used in that clauses, when the main clause contains an exdivssion of recommendation, resolution, demand, etc. The use of this subjunctive I occurs chiefly in formal style (and especially in Am E) where in less other devices, such as to — infinitive or should = infinitive.
It is necessary that he be there.
It is necessary that he should be there.
It is necessary for him to be there.
Subjunctive II denotes an unreal action and it coincides in the form with the Past Indefinite Tense (Subjunctive II Present) or Past Perfect (Subjunctive II Past). Ex.: I wish he had told the truth. If only he were here!
Mood is exdivssed in English to a much greater extent by past tense forms. E.g.:
If you taught me, I would learn quickly.
If she was/were to do smth like that.
He spoke to me as if I was/ were deaf…
I wish I was/were was
1) “Was” is more common in less formal style
2) Only “were” is acceptable in «As it were» (= so to speak)
3) “Were” is usual in «If I were you».
The Conditional Mood denotes an unreal action and is built by the auxiliary verb «world» + any Infinitive a non-perfect infinitive exdivsses simultaneousness while a perfect infinitive exdivsses priority. E.g.: But for the rain we would go for a walk. But for the rain we would have gone…
The Suppositional Mood also exdivsses a problematic action and is formed with the help of the auxiliary verb «should» for all the persons + Infinitive. E.g.: Ring me up if he should be there.
This mood can be used with any verb in subordinate that — clauses when the main clause contains an exdivssion of recommendation resolution, demand etc. (demand, require, insist, suggest...) E.g.: It is necessary that every member should inform himself of these rules = It is necessary for every member to inform… It is strange that he should have left so early.
Subjunctive I and the Suppositional Mood are differentiated only by their form but their meaning is the same.
Taking into consideration the fact that the forms of the Oblique Moods coincide in many cases with the forms of the Indicative Mood, there arises a problem of homonymy or polysemy. E.g.: He lived here. (The indicative Mood, Past Tense, Priority, real action).
If only he lived! (Subjunctive II, simultaneousness, unreal action)
The meaning of each necessary grammatical abstraction makes itself clear only in the course of its usage.
Compare also the following patterns with the verb should:
Had I known about it, I should have come yesterday. (should + Infinitive II used with reference to a non-fact).
That science in the USSR should have attained so high a level of development is but natural (should + Infinitive II exdivssing a real action in the past with special emphasis laid upon its realisation).
The variety of meaning as potentially implicit in a grammatical form, we naturally associate with the development of synonymy in grammar.
8. Synonymy in Grammar
Synonymic forms in grammar are not exactly alike, they commonly have fine shares of difference in style and purpose, and students need to be alive to these differences. There is always selection in the distribution of grammatical forms in actual speech. They must harmonise with the context as appropriate to a given situation.
The change in synonymous grammatical forms is often a change in style, and the effect on the reader is quite different. Even a slight alteration in the grammatical device can subtly shift the meaning of the utterance. Examine the following sentence:
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