Реферат: Топики по Английскому языку

Economy in Rassian

TheRussian is reach in natural resources in the past few years the Russia try toremove from a centrally controlled economy to a market economy. In spite ofdecline Russia has various branches of industry, such as metallurgical, automobileand chemical industry. Russia is divided on 11 economic regions such as: North,North west, central, volga, ural…And Asia :West Siberia, East Siberia, and the Far East. Russian s machinebuilding industry provides most of the Federations requirement for steamboilers and turbines ,electric generators, grain combines, automobiles andelectric locomotives and machine tools, instruments and automation components.Important automobile factories are located in Moscow, Н.Новгород,ЯрославльИжевск.Rus. textile industries are heavilyconcentrated in the European sector especially in the central region. Russianagriculture is not so developed. But some of the main crops grown on the Southare wheat, fruits, on the North are wheat, barley, oats, vegetables. Cattlebreeding and pig raising make up an important branch of R. agricultural.Forests is a very important branch for Russian. But in Rus.can not use the resources more effectively. In Rus.the resources is sold as the raw materials. It is necessary to employ ofmanufacturing. And then we will live better.

TheRussian Art.

Themost important form of early Russian art was the icons. The word icon meansimage in Greek. Icon is the religious pictures of Christ and Saints on woodenpanel. They decorated churches, mostly placed on the iconostasis. In Russia thefinest icons were produced from the midforteenthcentury. In that time a specific national style icon painting was formed.Russian icon painting reached the highest point of its achievement in the worksof Theothan Greek, Andrey Rublev and Dionissy in the mid-15century. Andrey Rublev is aRussian greatest iconpainter. In 1408 he was engagedon the murals in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Vladimir when he alsoproduced his version of the icon of Vladimirs Virgin.And well known cuch icons as Спасand Троица which was found in Vladimir. A.R.sicons is expressed a distinct filling of harmony, deep spirituality, grace andthe beauty of the colors. Rs works is one of thegreatest creations of medieval Russian painting.   Intimate [intimeit]намекать, Severe[sivie] строгий, Distinct [distinkt] отличный, тчетливый. Creations[krieishn] создание, творение.    In the2th half of 19th century artists of the Wanderers groupstarted painting scenes of contemporary life. VasiliyPerov, Ivan Kramskoy, Aleksey Savrasov,Ivan Shishkin, Valentin Serov and Vasiliy Surikov were wanderers. The works of Wonderesare displayed in the famous picture galleries: the TretiakovGallery in Moscow,the Russian Museum in St.Petersburg. They called themselves the Wanderers, because they wanted torealize their ideals by taking wondering exibitions tthroughout the country. The most clear represenativeof Wonderers in my opinion was Vasiliy Surikov.[1848-1916]. He was the first of the W. Hewas born in Krasnojarsk in Siberia.His masterpiece was the БоярыняМорозова. [1887] Its an enormous painting-both in size and scale. A decorativesurface rhythm and strong horizontals are other eharacteircticscommon to Russian art, both ancient and modern, and like wise first recoveredin the work of Surikov.

TheEnglish Art.

The18th century, the Golden Age of British Art. The 18th  century, the great age of British painting.It was in this period that British art attained a distinct national character. Hogarth was followed by a row of  illustrious painters: Thomas Gainsborough, with his lyrical landscapes, funcy  pictures andportraits, Reynolds, who painted charming society portraits and became thefirst president of the Royal Academy.      William Hogarth was unquestionably one of thegreatest of English artists and a man of remarkably individual character and thought. It was his achievement togive a comprehensive view of social life within the framework of moralistic andframatic narrative.

Hismasterpiece of the famous series was Marriage a la Mode. This set of picturesdescribes a marriage between the daughter of a rich man and a young lord, theson of an old earl. The Girls father has brought a bag full of money with him.Their children are together but apart: the young man is watching himself in theglass; the girl is listening to a young Counsellor.The pictures round the room help understund thesituation.  In one of the pictures Madamsits listening to the young Consellor, whose portraithangs in her room. Other pictures in the series show My Lord who amuses himselfwith a bad company. He returns home tipsy. Madam wastes her money at auctions.The end is known. My Lord attacks the Counsellor, whokills him and is executed. Moral: do not listen to counsellors;dont marry a man for his rank, or a woman for hermoney; dont visit auctions unknown to your husband; dont have bad friends. Otherwise you will be ruined.

Fromthe 18 century portrait painting,eit

Mass media

Themost popular sources of entertainment and information are the press, radio, tv, and movies. The press plays an important part in thelife of society. Millions of Americans in their free time read newspapers. TheEnglish word ‘newspaper’ does not really. Describe everything that you can readin this kind of publication. Newspapers include not only stories about recentevents (news), but opinions, advertising, and other non-news items. The firstAmerican newspaper was called Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic.This paper was first published in Boston in 1690. Now there are about 2,600newspapers published in the USA. The New York Times, the Washington Post, andthe Los Angeles Times are three of the most important daily papers thatdescribe foreign and domestic news. The radio does not interfere with your activities.You can listen to the radio while doing some work about the house, reading abook or driving a car. On the radio one can hear music, plays, news, anddifferent commentary and discussions called ‘forums’. At a forum severalauthorities exchange views on social, economic and political problems. Apeculiar feature of the American radio is soap opera. It is a sentimentalserial drama that describes domestic problems and which is for housewives. Soapopera is usually broadcast every day. Most people find soap opera boring. Thereate a lot of games on the radio. They are called ‘panel games’. Radio bringsalso cultural and educational programs. Many programs are made up of classicalmusic. Television is a ‘chewing gum for ears and eyes’. There are many serialson TV in the USA. They appeared in the 1950s. TV games- attract a largeaudience, too. During TV quiz programs TV viewers answer different questions.There is a lot of education on television. For example, you can take a TVcourse in history, political economy, management, banking and in many othersubjects, or learn a foreign language by TV. Educational TV films and programsare shown in schools and colleges as a part of the curriculum.

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