Реферат: China And Japan Essay Research Paper China
China And Japan Essay, Research Paper
China and Japan
From 1500 to 1800, China and Japan tried to politically and economically established their countries in very different ways. Japan fought war after war for a century before they changed their ways. China on the other hand slowly established a government and used education as a tool to be politically and economically strong. Japan would later do the same.
China was one of the most politically and economically strong countries during 1500 1800. The state was identified as family. It brought unity and integration. The political system was an expanded role of Confucianism. From 1500 1800, China was the most highly commercialized non-industrial society in the world. China had what is known as the perfected late imperial system. The two Dynasties that ruled China during this time period were Ming (1368 1644) and Ch ing (1644 1911). They both had the same type of government, good familial and good educational system. The emperor was stronger than ever during Ming – Ch ing. It made all-important and UN-important decisions. Below him were the Grand Secretaries. They made all decisions the Emperor did not want to make. The Ming and Ch ing had an organization of offices, at the top was the military, censorate, and administrative branch, below them were six ministries. They ran a Confucianism political system. These were also Chinas last Dynasties.
During the ruling of Ming, population doubled from 60 million to 125 million. Food supply was on the same pace. They had their fare share of epidemics. The great plague of 1586 1589 and 1639 1644 killed 20% – 30% of the most populated areas. Ming re-populated open lands by re-settling villages and expanding water supply like the re-opening of the Grand Canal in 1415. Silk and cotton dominated the local markets. Silver was a dominate market in the mid 1600 s. It was imported from mines in Western Japan. Spanish Galleons brought Peruvian silver into China. This led to the opening of the private Shensi Bank branches to accommodate the transfer of funds. Rather than paying taxes in grain or labor, farmers would sell grain and cash crops and pay taxes in silver. Ming collapsed in 1644.
In the late 16th century, a Leader unified the Manchurian tribes, proclaimed a new Dynasty, and established a government. After the collapse of the Ming Dynasty, they took over and are know as the Ch ing Dynasty or Manchu. They ran the same style of government as Ming. In the late 16th century, Ch ing took over south China with the help of Ming s generals that allied with Ch ing after the collapse and moved the capital from Mukden to Peking. Manchu appointed two people, one Manchu, and one Chinese, to each key post in the central government. It was called Dyarchy. In 1683, Emperor K ang Hsi took over Taiwan.
The Ming Ch ing was known as the perfected late imperial system. They had a stronger emperor, better government finances and used Confucianism as an ideology. They had more academies to prepare people for the civil service exams, more bookstores, publishing flourished, and literacy outpaced population. Some of Chinas major markets were grain, salt, timber, iron, and cotton. Silk was a major market that was spread all over the world.
China used education and political growth to establish themselves. They grew slowly and were on of the strongest countries of their time. They were the strongest countries in international trade. They would stop growing in the late 19th century due to lack of technology at that time.
Japan had two different eras s from 1500 to 1800. The Warring State s era was an all out war inside Japan from 1467 to 1600. The other was the Tokugawa era from 1600 to 1868. The wars came to an end and Japan established Government control and unity under Tokugawa Ieyasu s command.
The Warring States era started in 1467 when a dispute over the next Ashika Shogun arrised. It led to war between two lords who supported Bakufu. Other lords took the opportunity to gain territory from the weaker. Wars raged though out Japan for eleven years. This ended in 1477 but fighting though out Japan continued for the next century. 100 s of local states would give way to 10 s of regional states. Then the regional states fought it out until in the late 16th century all of Japan came under control of one lord, Oda Nobunaga. He started the initial unification of central Honshu. He was assassinated in 1582. Toyotomi Hideyoshi completed unification in 1590. Then he died in 1598. After his death, wars started again until 1600 when Tokugawa Ieyasu won the battle of Sekigahara and established permanent unity. This was the start of the Tokugawa era.
The Tokugawa era was the end of the wars. Japan had established unity though out the country. The leaders sought peace and a stable society. In the mid 16th century, Japan had vigorous demographic and economic growth. The Tokugawa control involved strict military housing for soldiers. The soldiers were called Samurai. Wives and children of soldiers were held hostage. They could not leave and the husbands could not see them. In 1854 Japan was secluded. No one could enter and no one could leave. The taxes were based on land. Most were paid in grain only 1/3 were paid in money. Commence grew in the late 16th century due to taxes. Peasants would pay appoximently 33% of their annual income towards taxes. In return they would get military protection.
In the 17th century, Japan s economy grew. The resources previously used for war were now used for land reclamation. This doubled agricultural production and doubled population from 12 million to 24 million. Some of the by products produced were, cotton, silk, indigo, and lumber. After the growth of the economy, commence also grew. Townsmen governed districts and Samurai watched over the cities. Services such as schools, police, and Firefighter companies were provided. Merchants provided moneychangers, pawn brokers, peddlers, small shops retail establishments, and wholesale merchants. In the early 18th century, Japan adopted Confucianism, which would put schools in every district.
In conclusion, China and Japan started out differently. Japan used war to establish unity and China use education and political growth. China was very strong in international trade; Japan was a secluded country. China grew slow and strong and Japan grew fast after the Warring States era. In the late 1800 s both countries were strong politically and economically.