Реферат: Fgm Ritual Abuse Essay Research Paper Female

Fgm: Ritual Abuse Essay, Research Paper

Female circumcision, also known as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), is a very

dangerous surgery. It is done to girls of any age, from a few days old to right

before their wedding. The most common age is three. In most countries where

FGM is practiced the clitoris is considered dangerous to the man. At one point

they thought that if a penis touched a clitoris, it would shrivel up and fall off.

Girls in Africa and parts of Asia are genitally mutilated for family honor,

cleanliness, protection against spells, insurance of virginity and faithfulness to the

husband, or to terrorize women out of sex. In the late 70?s and early 80?s parts of

Europe and the United States used circumcision as a way to ?cure? over-sexed or

neurotic women. No matter what the excuse for it, Female Genital Mutilation is a

form of sexual abuse.

There are three types of Female Genital Mutilation. The first type, Sunna,

meaning tradition, is the only form that can correctly be called circumcision.

Sunna is the removal of the tip of the clitoris. The second, clitoridectomy, is the

most commonly practiced type. Clitoridectomy is the total removal of the clitoris

and the adjacent labia (also know as the ?lips? of the vagina). The third type,

Infibulation, is the most severe and harmful type. In infibulation, the entire

clitoris and both labia are removed. Then the remaining tissue of the vulva are

pinned together by catgut or silk sutures. A tiny slit, for urination and

menstruation, is left open by inserting a sliver of wood, a matchstick, or reed into

the vagina. After the surgery, the girl is bound from hip to ankle and kept

immobile for 40 days. This allows scar tissue to form. All three types result in

many harmful effects.

Most of the effects of FGM are caused by the surgery taking place in an

unsanitary environment. Kitchen knives, scissors, razor blades, or pieces of glass

are the most common instruments used for the cutting. Unless performed in a

hospital, the cutting tool is generally rusty and very dirty. Instead of sterilizing the

instrument between surgeries, it is placed on dirt, ashes, or cow dung. This results

in many infections. Using the same tool on several girls also promotes the spread

of HIV. Due to loss of blood and pain many girls suffer from shock. Many

women suffer from pelvic complications. Also urinary retention and urinary tract

infections are common among circumcised women. Due to loss of blood many of

the girls suffer from week bones, often resulting in fractures and breaks. The loss

of the clitoris makes it impossible for the woman to have an orgasm. If the person

performing the surgery-either a mid wife or a barber- has bad eye sight or is

unsteady, surrounding organs may be damaged. There are no positive effects to

Female Genital Mutilation.

There is no definite origin for FGM, but there is a myth that may have

something to do with it. The myth is about Lamia, a beautiful seductive woman.

Lamia would ?unite? with young warrior men inside a cloud. When the cloud

would lift, Lamia was left standing with a pile of the warrior?s bones around her

feet. The bones were being gnawed on by a snake. The myth is that during

intercourse, Lamia?s clitoris ?ate? the young warrior. This myth was known

throughout the world with only a slight change from culture to culture. This myth

may be what started female circumcision.

In conclusion Female Genital Mutilation is sexual abuse. Women who have

experienced it, live in pain due to what was done to them as a child. Most of the

women are too afraid of either the men in their culture or changing tradition, that

they won?t speak up against it. No one should have to live in pain and fear all

their lives.

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