Реферат: Leadership Theory Essay Research Paper According to

Leadership Theory Essay, Research Paper

According to Nathan F. Iannone, leadership can be defined as the art of

influencing, directing, guiding, and controlling others in such a way as to

obtain their willing obedience, confidence, respect and loyal cooperation in

accomplishment of an objective. Leaders are not born?sure there are some

gifts-traits-attributes, natural endowments that affect relative abilities?but

they are not born, they are made. Any reasonably intelligent person with enough

forcefulness to develop his/her ability to inspire others to follow him can earn

leadership status. Remember that we have both formal and informal leaders?..

Being a Captain /Sergeant doesn?t make you a leader! Classic Leadership

Theory: Common Traits of Leaders. Booher and Watson refer to classic leadership

theory because it describes an approach to understanding leadership that by and

large is out of style. Nonetheless it is clear that one can learn a great deal

by studying the important personal ingredients in the leadership equation.

Studying the traits of great leaders became unpopular because it was and is

associated with the ?great man? theory of leadership. This approach was

espoused in the 19th. and early 20th. Centuries, and asserted the leadership

qualities are largely inherited. This was called ?trait theory.? Researchers

such as Mann and Stodgill found no consistent correlate between particular

traits and leadership. Later research, particularly more recent and more

sophisticated work has found a consistent and strong relationship between

certain traits and leadership. Possessing these core traits simply makes it more

likely that a person will take the appropriate action leading to leadership

success. Overhead #2 The Art of Leadership. What is the nature of leadership,

leadership is an art! As with any form of artistic expression, painting, music,

leadership is an art form in that it: · Is an expression of the

individual within the social and environmental context. · Reflects the

individual?s personality. · Can be easier to demonstrate and develop

when one has a talent for it. · Can be learned-you may have a talent for

it, you may not, either way, anyone can still become an effective leader.

· Is greatly enhanced through a disciplined regimen of learning and

feedback. Through science, we can study the elements of leadership and provide

valuable understanding into its nature. This enables us to determine where to

focus our leadership skills and abilities, as well as measure to some extent,

our effectiveness. However, the act of leading itself is largely unscientific

and is far more akin to practicing an art form than studying scientific

variables. Understanding both facets of leadership is crucial to your

development as a leader. For you as a leader, remember that leadership is an

art; your leadership is always a work in progress. OH #3 Leadership Styles. Many

people believe that there is one type of leadership that is most effective, and

if they can only develop that style, they would be effective as a leader. Some

leaders have one style, and honestly believe that it is best to stick with what

comes naturally. As with any art form, one has a number of tools at one?s

disposal. In leadership, these tools are different leadership styles. Although

certain situations call for specific styles, most situations call for a

combination of styles. The four general styles of leadership are: 1. Autocratic.

2. Participative. 3. Laissez-faire. 4. Variable. Autocratic also known as

authoritarian leadership is rule by authority. As a manager or supervisor, a

person is endowed with a level of authority, which is expected to be obeyed. An

autocratic leader rests on this fact, expecting his subordinates to comply.

Participative leadership is often referred to as democratic although democratic

processes (voting etc.) need not be present to constitute participative

leadership. Laissez-faire leadership (really non-leadership) is a hands off

approach. If the group?s goals are being accomplished under the management of

a LF leader, it is because the group members are self-motivated, demonstrate

effective teamwork, and exhibit expertise in their field. Variable leadership, a

precursor to ?situational leadership? draws from a combination of the above

styles. Whether this form of leadership is effective depends on how each style

is applied at what time. The styles of leadership help us understand how people

go about practicing the art, the question how does our individual traits affect

our ability to do so? OH #4 Leadership Traits. Traits can be described as our

general orientation (paradigm) toward people and things. Regrettably we tend to

view ourselves, as the way people ought to be. That is problematic. This clouds

our judgment of ourselves and others, hindering our ability to ascertain

weaknesses, and objectively evaluate and develop upon our strengths. Traits are

such a fundamental aspect of our personalities that they lead us to display

consistent behavior across different situations. (Each of us can be described in

terms of our personal traits.) There are certain traits that are associated with

effective leadership. They are so critical, yet difficult to pinpoint, that for

centuries, volumes have been written in an effort to define and describe them.

They are the critical foundation of successful leadership. These traits

distinguish leaders from non-leaders. OH #5: Common Traits of Leaders continued.

Integrity of character is the foundation of lasting and effective leadership.

Kouzes and Posner assert, ?Honesty is absolutely essential to leadership.

After all, if we are willing to follow someone whether it is into battle or into

the boardroom, we want first to assure ourselves that the person is worthy of

our trust. We want to be fully confident in the integrity of our leaders.?

Professional competence includes a solid grasp of the methods, processes,

procedures, and techniques of a leaders organization. This competence can be

everything from ?rocket science to parking tickets,? without it leaders

quickly lose the respect of their followers and find it difficult to make

well-informed decisions. Certainly it is critical that given the pace of law

enforcement, leaders are capable of making intelligent, quick strategies that

solve problems. Make good decisions or you wont be around long as a boss. Genius

is not required, above average intelligence is. Typically we imagine leaders

doing only exciting things, letting others do the real work. This mental frame

ignores the hard reality that being the boss isn?t easy. High levels of energy

are needed physical vitality helps leaders overcome the often unrelenting

demands of leadership. Drive to excel, high desire for achievement, outstanding

leaders drive themselves and their organizations to complete challenging

assignments and achieve extraordinary results. OH #6 Traits of Leaders. Carl

Watson and Carl Chimers (UC-Santa Cruz) tell us that confident leaders are more

successful than ones who lack confidence. Self-confidence is important because

confident leaders remain calm under pressure, persist doggedly in the face of

adversity, and act boldly and confidently which helps encourage and embolden

followers. A person riddled with self-doubt may not be able to act effectively

under pressure or command respect of followers. ?By demonstrating grace under

pressure, the best leaders inspire those around them to stay calm and act

intelligently.? (K. Labich.) People who lack emotional stability are more

prone to moodiness, angry outbursts, and inconsistent behavior. This undermines

their relationships with followers, peers, and superiors. Highly successful

leaders, on the other hand, remain even-tempered and are calm, confident and

predictable during a crisis. Lastly, outstanding leaders have a strong desire to

lead? they want to be in charge. To fulfill this desire they are more willing

to accept responsibility and subsequently take decisive action. Leaders have a

strong desire to have influence and impact others. In short, they accrue and use

power. Power can be used pro-socially (responsibly) and it can be used

capriciously. The fact that power can be abused should not blind us to the fact

that it is necessary for organizations to function. Excellent leaders use their

power to build up their organizations, develop their people, and make them

successful. OH #7 Leadership Principles. Let us talk about leadership principles

that guide people toward the actions that lead to successful leadership. If

traits are the necessary preconditions for leadership; then principled actions

are the fulfillment of the promise. OH #8 Moral courage is not an all or nothing

proposition. Exceptional leaders consistently exhibit the unwavering courage of

their convictions, often refusing to follow the easy path because it violates a

moral standard. To become an effective leader, one must establish or adopt

clearly defined moral standards, then adhere to then relentlessly. To develop

their followers, you must know them well. Think how people are constantly

changing?makes your job even more difficult. Managers (as opposed to leaders)

restrict information to their people as a method of maintaining control and

importance to the team. Leaders empower their people with information so that

the entire team, and through this leader, can excel. Keeping people informed

also provides feedback and points of reference to monitor success. Human beings

have a tendency to form cliques. Although this natural tendency has advantages,

its drawbacks tend to inhibit effective teamwork. The most significant way this

happens is by stifling contrary points of view. Although we normally think that

we want total agreement during all stages of a project, in reality contrary

points of view provide more choice and help avoid unethical decision-making.

Exceptional leaders demonstrate loyalty not only to their organization, but also

to their followers. Being loyal means that they deeply consider what is best for

others, despite what you may want or need for yourself. Do, as I say, not as I

do is the best way to fail in leadership. Remember the old clich?: Actions

speak louder than words, people can be inspired by words, but they follow

actions. OH # 9 Johari?s Window. Self-knowledge is critical for people to

develop and grow in every aspect of our lives, and that includes leadership

skills. By being familiar with our strengths and limitations, we are able to use

our strengths to best advantage and create a plan to expand the abilities we

find limited. Alternately, we can surround ourselves with people who compensate

for our limitations. Whatever approach we eventually take, self-knowledge is the

first critical step. Johari?s Window is a concept used by self-development

trainers. It describes degrees of knowledge about the self in two dimensions,

(1) that which is known/unknown to the self and (2) that which is known/unknown

to others. Using these categories produces a two by two matrix of potential

circumstances of knowledge regarding the self. The first quadrant, public

knowledge describes things about us that we are aware of and so are others. The

second quadrant, blind knowledge, can be what derails us from success as a

leader. This quadrant describes things about us that others are aware of and

that we are not; thus, we are blind to our true natures. Often, it is as simple

as thinking we are better at something than we really are. Because this is such

a large problem in organizations, many companies in private business have

instituted multi-rater (360 degree) feedback processes. These allow superior,

subordinates, and peers. To arte how effective leaders are on a variety of

dimensions (usually based on a validated competency profile). Multi-rater

feedback provides a great opportunity for leaders to reduce their blind spots.

The third quadrant describes that which is neither known to us that we hide or

keep private from others. Keeping things private is both expected and necessary

OH #10 E-Cubed. Lets talk about how all these traits and principles fit

together. First, we propose that integrity of character and moral courage are

the foundation or basis of principled leadership. After the foundation of

integrity and courage, we turn to what is called ?e-cubed? which describes

some leadership fundamentals. Extraordinary leaders enable their followers. That

is, they set them up for success by ensuring that they have the right

experiences, skills and resources. They also actively remove obstacles or

barriers to success. In order to enable their people, leaders must be

professionally competent, have the smarts to make right decisions, and have a

through knowledge of the strengths, limitations, and preferences of their

followers. Extraordinary leaders empower their followers. In other words they

share information, power, and authority to make decisions and take action. How

do these traits and principles come into this? Emotionally stable leaders do not

allow their strong desire to lead to lure them into hoarding power, acting

capriciously, developing cliques or playing favorites. These leaders understand

that sharing information and power leads to better performance and more

motivated followers. Extraordinary leaders energize their followers. They excite

their followers by challenging them to met difficult goals, expressing

confidence in their ability to meet the goal, and setting the example by their

own enthusiasm, energy, and hard work toward the goal. OH #11 When Do You Know

You Are a Great Leader? If people continue to write about your effective

leadership 50 years after your death, that?s a pretty good sign that you were

a great leader. For everyone else, it?s very difficult to tell. Some of us,

whom have adoring followers, have failing organizations. Some of us who have

successful organizations have burnt out and bitter followers. Few of us have

both for a sustained period of time. When we do, it is easy to become with our

leadership qualities. We suggest we should seek to raise our art to an even

higher form, constantly seeking to become, and help others become, better

leaders. With this view, we never become so enamored with ourselves that we say,

?Yeah, I am a great leader.? Instead, one recognizes that many factors

contribute to leadership success, No small measure of our success is due the

efforts, smarts, and tenacity of our followers. And, as the environment in which

we do business change, so too must our leadership skills grow and expand. Three

Lessons in Leadership: People from top to bottom in most organizations exercise

leadership. It does not require charisma; it is not mystical or mysterious. What

is Leadership? Leadership is the process of giving meaningful direction to

collective efforts. · Giving meaning. · Setting a direction

· Willing support and cooperation. Leadership vs. Management: ·

Planning vs. Setting a Direction · Organizing and staffing vs… Aligning

People · Controlling and problem Solving vs. Motivating People. Three

Lessons in Leadership or 3E?s · Envisioning. · Energizing.

· Enabling. The Three E?s of Leadership. · Articulating a

Compelling Vision. Set the direction. · Setting High Expectations.

Encourage excellence. · Modeling Consistent Behavior Walk the talk. The

Three E?s of Leadership. Energizing: Demonstrating Personal Excitement:

Enthusiasm is contagious. Expressing Personal Confidence: Confidence inspires.

Seeking, Finding, and Using Success: Celebrate and leverage success Enabling.

Expressing Personal Support: back people up. Empathizing: Understand other?s

feelings. Expressing Confidence in People: believe in them and they will

believe. Leadership Competencies: · Action oriented. · Building

team spirit. · Command skills. · Ethics and integrity. ·

Interpersonal savvy. · Managing vision and purpose. · Motivating

and inspiring others. · Problem solving and decision quality. ·

Results orientation. · Strategic agility.

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