Реферат: Systems Analysis And Design Essay Research Paper
Systems Analysis And Design Essay, Research Paper
Systems Analysis and Design
Review Questions pg 1.28-29
1. A procedure is a specific task that needs to be done to produce output. A system is a group of related procedures for a particular business function.
2. Data is another word used for input, and information is another word used for output.
3. The components of an information systems (IS) are hardware, software, data, procedures, and people.
Hardware: physical layer of information system.
Software: system and application software.
Data: Vital component of every system
Procedures: define tasks that must be performed by people who work with the system
People: primary purpose of IS is to provide valuable info to managers and users.
4. All information either is produced directly or derived from data.
5. An information systems is the effective use of hardware, software, data, procedures, and people to achieve specific results that support the company’s business objectives.
6. Common business information systems consist of: purchasing system, production system, marketing system, receivables system, finance system, and human resource system.
7. EDI is the computer-to-computer transfer of data between companies. An example of this is computerized filing of income taxes.
8. No, the Saturn web-site does not describe the company’s corporate culture because corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company’s personality and its’ not possible to view all these things through a web-site.
9. The four factors that affect the complexity of a business information system are:
1. Relationships with other systems
3. Specialized business needs
4. Size of a company
10. The six types of information systems are:
1. Operational– process data generated by the day-to-day business transactions of a company
2. Management information system– computer based system that generates timely and accurate information for top, middle, and lower managers.
3. Executive information system– supports the information requirements of top level managers and their need to make unstructured decisions?combines features and capabilities of both MIS and decision support system.
4. Decision support system– what if analysis..effect on company if sales increase by 10 percent and costs go up by 5 percent?.designed to help make business decisions by analyzing internal or external data.
5. Expert system– stimulate human reasoning and decision making by combining the subject knowledge of human experts, called the knowledge base, and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is used to reach decisions.
6. Office systems– e-mail, video conferencing, voice mail, fax, word processing, desktop, spreadsheets.
11. The four organizational levels and their Information system requirements:
1. Top managers– executive info. Systems, MIS summaries, decision support systems, office systems
2. Middle managers– MIS summaries, and expectations, decision support systems, office systems.
3. Lower managers– operational systems details, some MIS summaries and exceptions, office systems
4. Operational personnel– operational systems detail, expert system, office system
12. The systems development life cycle is a series of steps that companies use to build on information systems.
13. Phase 1: Systems planning
-starts with a written request called a systems request, that identifies the information system and describes the desired changes or improvements.
-identify clearly the nature and scope of the problem.
-end product is preliminary investigation report.
-feasibility study based on economic, technical, and operational factors.
Phase 2: Systems analysis
-purpose is to learn exactly how the current system operates, to determine and document what the system should do, and to recommend alternative solutions.
-define all functions performed by current information systems and determine what improvements are needed.
-after gathering facts, analyze them carefully and develop specific plan to solve problems in current system. This process is called requirements analysis.
-end product is the systems requirements document, which describes all management and user requirements, alternative plans and costs, and your recommendation.
Phase 3: System design
-purpose is to develop an information system design that satisfies all documented requirements
-make a logical determination of what the system must do
-must identify all necessary outputs, inputs, files, application programs, and manual procedures
-design is documented in system design specification and presented to management and users for their review and approval
Phase 4: Systems Implementation
-information system is constructed and put in place
-application programs are written, tested, and documented; operational documentation and procedures are completed and approval is obtained from users and managers.
-objective is to deliver a completely functioning and documented information system that has been reviewed and approved
-at conclusion of this phase, the system is ready for use
Phase 5: System operation and support
-maintenance and enhancements sometimes are requested to resolve problems identified by users.
-The replacement of a system constitutes the end of its overall life cycle.
14. A system request is a written request that identifies the info system and describes the desired changes or improvements. It is important to the SDLC because it can keep a system live cycle going or it is the first step to a whole new system.
15. During systems operations you can do either maintenance changes to correct errors or conform to specific requirements or you can enhance a system to modify capability, such as providing new info in an existing report or adding a new report.
16. End products for Phases of SDLC:
Phase 1: preliminary investigation report
Phase 2: system requirements document
Phase 3: system design specifications
Phase 4: Systems operation and support
Phase 5: Operation information system.
17. A prototype is an early working version of the information system?prototyping can speed up the SDLC process.
18. A CASE tool is a software product that automates a specific systems life cycle task and eliminates much of the manual effort.
19. Four common functional areas with in the information systems department are: operations, technical support, applications, and the information center.
20. The systems analyst investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates, and maintains a companies information systems. The systems analysts must plan projects, develop schedules, and estimate costs. Conduct meetings, deliver presentations, and write memos, reports, and documentation. Must have strong technical skills and broad knowledge of information management concepts, tools, and techniques. Needs strong people skills, and must have capabilities to communicate effectively. Needs strong leadership skills to plan, estimate, the control the project and to coach and motivate others