Реферат: Imperialism World War I And Revolution And

Imperialism, World War I And Revolution And Nationalism Essay, Research Paper

Imperialism,World War I and Revolution and Nationalism

I) As some of us know what imperialism is, I would like to start you off with a definition

for those who may not know what it is or what it means. Imperialism is a policy that one

strong nation wants to take over or dominate other countries economic, political, and

social forces. The reason is to take over land in all parts of the globe. An example of

Imperialism would be India. The British came into India regulating the eastern side of

India. India still was in control; they had their own army, but were lead by British officers.

The reason why British cared about India, because of the resources that they had, such as

raw materials for their world s largest workshops. Remember Britain was known for good

factories, clothing and other products because they started the industrial revolution. Then

the British started to set up restrictions for India that prevented them from operating the

economy. Then they ordered for India to produce raw materials, for Britain s

manufacturing and to buy British finished goods. The British then built a railroad for the

raw materials to be shipped out, which then made India more valuable. The British started

to restrict Indian owned industries, they then felt and became second class citizens in their

own country. The Indians believed that with the British in control of their country that

they were trying to convert their religion to Christianity. The Indians were restricted many

things such as jobs, they had the same education as the British, but they didn t get the

jobs, the British did. Then came the Sepia Mutiny, when the Hidus and the Muslims then

started to fight with the British, to get back their country. Like I said the Indians felt like

they were second citizens in their own country. They reacted with war trying to fight with

the British and get back their country.

II) World War I truly was the result of building aggressions among the countries of

Europe, which was backed by the rise of nationalism. To add to the disastrous plot, there

was also imperial competition along with the fear of war prompting military alliances and

an arms race. All of these increased the escalating tensions that lead to the outbreak of a

world war. Two opposing alliances developed by the Bismarckian diplomacy after the

Franco- Prussian War was one of the major causes of the war. In order to diplomatically

isolate France, Bismarck formed the Three Emperor s League in 1872, which was an

alliance between Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. Then in 1882, Bismarck took

advantage of Italian resentment toward France and formed the Triple Alliance between

Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungry. In 1890 Bismarck was dismissed from his office and

France took the opportunity to gain an ally, therefore, in 1891 the Franco- Russian

Entente was formed. Then in 1904 Britain and France put aside their conflicts and formed

the Entente Cordiale. As a result, the Triple Entente, a coalition between Great Britain,

France, and Russia, countered the Triple Alliance. Now Europe was divided up into two

armed camps. Nationalism also played a major role in developing tensions in Europe; for it

had been causing dissatisfaction since the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In that settlement

the preservment of peace was chosen over nationalism, therefore, Germany and Italy were

left as divided states, though they did unify in the future. The Franco- Prussian War in

1871 resulted in the France s loss of the province of Alasce-Lorraine to Germany, and the

French looked forward to regaining their lands. Then there was Austria- Hungary which

controlled many lands that their neighbors felt belonged to them. Serbia wanted Bosnia

and Hercegovina, Italy wanted the Trentino and Trieste regions, and the Czechs and

Solvaks wanted independence from Austria- Hungrey. There was also Russia which had

problems within it s own boundaries; for Russia contained many different nationalities and

many were also seeking independence in the name of nationalism. Another major conflict

that caused the outbreak of the Great War was what is known as the arms race. With the

hostile divisions of the nations of Europe there came the expansion of armies and navies.

Furthermore, the great powers came to copy Germany s military organization and

efficiency, which called for universal registration for military duty, large reserves and

detailed planning. Efforts were made for universal disarmament, but the ” international

rivalry caused the arms race to continue to feed on itself. Imperial competition also played

a major rule in the act of increasing the ever growing tensions among the divided countries

of Europe. In Africa there were two crises in Morocco. The first time, in 1905, Germany

full heartedly supported Morocco s call for independence from France, and with the

British defending the French war was only avoided because of an international conference

which made Morocco a French protectorate. The second crisis occurred in 1911, and it

was in protest to French supremacy in Morocco. The Germans finally gave the French a

free hand in Morocco, but with a price. They demanded in exchange a portion if of the

French Congo. Around this same era there was also a Bosnian crisis, which began with

Austria-Hungary s takeover of the province of Bosnia in 1908. For this Serbia threatened

war on Austria-Hungary with the pledged backing of Russia. As they began to mobilize,

Austria- Hungary, with the alliance of Germany, threaten war on Russia. When Russia

backed down, the soon to be war was postponed, but left was a greatly strained

relationship between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. On June 28, 1914 the battle lines were

drawn with the assassinations in Sarajevo. It was believed that the crime was committed

by a Serbian nationalist, and immediately following it Germany, with its full support

pledged, pressed Austria-Hungary into declaring war on Serbia. At this same time, France

was strengthening its backing of Russia. War might have been avoided if Serbia had

excepted Austria-Hungary s harsh ultimatum, however they faithfully refused. Almost at

once the war fell into place. Austria declared war on July 28, 1914. The next day Russia

mobilized against Austria- Hungary, on August 1st Germany declared war on Russia, and

two days later on France. When Germany disregarded Belgium s neutrality, Britain

declared war on Germany. Finally war had begun, and unlike the predictions that had been

made the resulting war was long, indecisive, and reeked havoc on the nations of Europe.

The Great War officially ended in January of 1919 with a peace conference in Paris which

represented twenty- seven triumphant nations. However almost immediately the great

powers, United States, Great Britain, and France, were at odds with each other. President

Wilson, the representative of the United States, was insist on first and foremost dealing

with the creation of the League of Nations; while France and Britain on punishing

Germany. In the long run France gave up on having a buffer zone between itself and

Germany for a defensive alliance with the United States and Britain, and Wilson got the

formation of the League of Nations. These developments were not the key items at the

conference, rather it was the Treaty of Versailles. This treaty was made between the Allies

and Germany, and it began to re-establish order. In the treaty, all of Germany s colonies

were divided among the nations, thought it sustained minor losses of territory within

Europe. Its standing army was reduced to 100,00 men, and they could not have forts in

the Rhineland. The clause that angered most people was the one that made Germany claim

responsibility for the war, and imposed reparations. Thought Germany s new republican

government found the treaty to be harsh, they signed it and their discontent set the stage

for the Second World War. Germany was not the only country to suffer because of the

war; the world had been wiped clean of millions of people, and there was also extensive

damage throughout Europe. However, these were not the only sufferings for the

generation of the post- war era. The era followed with great many economic difficulties

throughout the world. The many industries that had been based on the war effort were no

longer needed, thereby unemployment was on the rise, and the government had secured

many debts to succeed in the war. These dictatorships involved a new form of tyranny and

were most evident in Stalin Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. With hardships rising, people

became more willing to put up with leaders like Stalin and Hitler. It is believed by many

that Hitler would never have came to power if it had not been for the German peoples

feelings of nationalism, and their discontent with the economy and the restrictions from the

Treaty of Versailles. Hitler played on the people s emotions, and he officially won the

game when he legally took over as the dictator of Germany. World War II was the last

major effect of the First World War. The war solved no problem. Its effects, both

immediate and indirect, were either negative or disastrous. Morally subversive,

economically destructive, socially degrading. Confused in its causes, devious in its course,

futile in its result, it is the outstanding example of European history of meaningless

conflict. These words of C.V Wedgwood are the perfect description of the Great War.

World War I had many complex causes, rather than one simple which is what is believed

by many people. Furthermore, the effects were widespread throughout generations all

over the world.

III) Lenin introduced a new econmic policy in Russia. The NEP introduced a small scale

version of capitalism to the tradional Russia. Before the NEP, Lenin distributed farmland

to peasats and workers in the factories. Then this allowed the pesants to sell their surplus

crops, instead of turning them into the government like they were always told. Lenin then

started the political reform, by organzing Russia into several governing rebulics.

Stalin then was in control, he was sort of a Hitler. He wanted to take total control over

Russia, and every aspect of the peoples lives, he then was a totaltarism leader. He then

started to make Russia into a communism country. He was in command of the econmy,

which pretty much says a government system which makes all of the decisions. He then

outlined plans for the Soviet Union, to promote rapid industrial growth, to strengthen the


A lot happend with the developments of the people and the country of China. To start off

the Qing Dynasty was overthrown. Sun Yixian took over and was forced to Kumintang

(Nationalist Pary). Which he succeeded over throwing the last emperor of the Dynasty.

Mao Zedong was a school teacher and while this was all going on, his students protested

because of the change and the beliefs of Sun Yixian s Western democracy.

Demonstrations of the protester s soon called it the May Fourth Movement. All based on

and in favor of Lenin s brand of Soviet communism. The two separate groups with their

different beliefs would fight with each other for who is right and what is best for the

Dynasty. Until Japan entered, the two groups temporay joined together to fight off Japan.

The Great March, which was a long journy of 6,000 miles.

After World War I, Indian soliders, returned home hoping for a change with Britain under

control of India. Self government was promised. leaders India hoped after the war the

promise would be fullfilled, but they were treated as second-class citizens. To protest all

of the promises that were broken, about 10,000 Muslims anad Hidus gathered at Amritsar,

the capital of Punjab. It was a peaceful event until the soliders of the British troops were

ordered to fire on the crowd. Lastiing ten minutes, would 1200 and killing 400. The

commmander thought the group as acting in a manner that alarmed the British thibking

this was big. After this big event this set the stage for Gandhi. His strategy for defending

injustice was religiously. He brought in religions such as Hinduism, Islam and Christianily.

With the massacre the British failed to punish the officers, so Gandhi urged the Indian

National Congress to follow present.


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