Реферат: Parapsychology Essay Research Paper In the past

Parapsychology Essay, Research Paper

In the past centuries people have been becoming more and more curious about the

unexplainable things all around them. They are always asking why does this

happen? and is that really true? Not until recently have scientists and others

actually tried to find out for themselves. Many of their searches evolved around

the paranormal. Soon they called their search parapsychology Parapsychology can

be defined as the study of apparent new means of communication, or exchange of

influence between organisms and environment, (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 2). It can

also be considered the science that lies beyond psychology. But for easier terms

it is many often times called the scientific study of certain unusual events

associated with human experience. These experiments have been called psychic for

want of a better term (KPU-Research 2). The experiments study the unique

experiences and an unknown capability of the human mind that suggests

consciousness is capable of interacting with the physical world that is not

always recognized by science. But, it is not beyond science`s ability to

investigate (Some common terms in parapsychology 1). Parapsychology has also

been coined ⌠an anomalous cognition and clairsentience (Psychic Phenomena

[The Omniverse] 1). Often parapsychology is shortened to PSI. Parapsychology is

not the study of just anything paranormal or bizarre. It is not concerned with

astrology, UFO`s, Bigfoot, paganism, vampires, alchemy or witchcraft. It is

often linked inappropriately with a broad range of psychic entertainers,

magicians and so-called paranormal investigators (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 3).

What often passes for psychic is actually fraud, delusion or fantasy

(Consciousness Research Laboratory Home Page 1). There are many subjects

involved in PSI. They are telepathy, ESP, Premonition/Precognition, NDE,

Clairvoyance, Reincarnation, Haunting, OBE, Psychokinesis/Telekinesis,

Poltergeist, and channeling. Telepathy literally means distant

feeling/perception. It is generally considered to be energy transference between

sentient creatures. Where at least one party will be absorbing the

thoughts/feelings of the other into its mind (Psychic Phenomena [The Omniverse]

2). It is direct mind-to-mind communication, commonly thought of as mind reading

but actually rarely involves perception of thoughts, and does not logically

require communication between two minds (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 2). Telepathy

should not be considered an OBE (out of body experience) of any kind. The body

is not transcended in a spiritual sense, but thought processes or energies might

be brought toward the mind and body. It sometimes is considered to be the means

of communication with the other side, or afterlife and those already residing

there. In some cases it is considered remote viewing (Psychic Phenomena [The

Omniverse] 4). In other cases it is explained as clairvoyance or precognition (CRL

Parapsychology FAQ 4). By definition you can not practice telepathy on your own,

a person has to adapt to it. It has not been possible to do in practice; to find

out exactly who the other person is with whom you are interacting (Telepathy 2).

Telepathy can take years to develop, it does not just happen. It can actually be

a symptom of a mental disorder; this makes it awkward to research. It can happen

like this, a person who has lived in a childhood which was not ideal (abusive)

stores anger in the cortex of the brain. After about 25 years the natural

defense mechanism begins to break down and the consequence is ⌠inner

thoughts■ that can be very loud and may appear as telepathy. It happens

that the brain does not want to associate the thoughts with what happened, so

the person convinces himself it is telepathy. And in some cases this will work

and in others it will not and a mental illness can result. ESP stands for

Extra-Sensory Perception. It is a general term for obtaining information about

events beyond the reach of the normal senses (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 2). It can

be considered telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and psychic experiences

(Some common terms in Parapsychology 1). Premonition/Precognition is the ability

to obtain information about future events, where the information could not be

inferred though normal means. Many people report dreams that appear to be

precognition (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 3). It literally means pre-knowing. And is

usually considered to be ⌠visions,■ wherein the seer witnesses an

event that may or may not happen. It is taken seriously by a great number of

people, yet it still is scientifically unproven. The converse application would

be postcogniton (Psychic Phenomena [The Omniverse] 4). Psychokinesis/Telekinesis

literally means ⌠distant motion■. It is mind over matter. It

includes moving objects with the mind and disruption or affecting the molecular

composition of an object. Levitation and spoon bending are common examples. It

also includes the sub-category of pyrokinesis. Which is a trait or ability that

allows the spontaneous combustion of objects (may include other people) whether

at pyrokinetic▓s will or not. Any form of ⌠kinesis■ falls into

this category (Psychic Phenomena [The Omniverse] 3). It is also called PK. And

another sub-topic is Bio-PK (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 3). In rare cases it may

involve obvious movement of objects, but most contemporary research studies PK

influences on atomic or electrionical processes (Some Common terms in

Parapsychology 1). Near death experiences (NDE) often refers to a core

experience that includes feelings of peace, OBE, seeing lights and other

phenomena. Those who were revived from nearly dying (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 3)

report the experiences (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 3). People can not forget that

mankind all through its history has left traces of believing in life after

death. Only in this century has the belief changed because of science

(Parapsychology and Survival after Death √ Psychical Research 2).

Clairvoyance is obtaining information about events at remote locations, beyond

the reach of normal senses. It is sometimes called remote viewing (CRL

Parapsychology FAQ 4). It is a term used to see from afar. And literally means

⌠clear seeing■. If it were purely auditory it would be called

clairaudience. Even though it can not be proven scientifically it is still

believed by a great many people. It is basically the same as an OBE, and

possibly even remote viewing. Clairvoyance is when one supposedly transcends

his/her body and travels about at will in the form of energy, a spirit, or on

the quantum level, this would be considered controlled clairvoyance. Some

consider it communicating with the ⌠other side■ or the after life.

It is different from telepathy because an actual vision is not necessarily an

emotional transference between organisms (Psychic Phenomena [The Omniverse] 3).

Reincarnation is the belief that we live successive lives, with evidence coming

from the apparent recollections of previous lives by very small children (CRL

Parapsychology FAQ 5). Out of Body Experience (OBE) is the experience of feeling

separated from the body. Is often accompanied by visual perceptions as though

from above the body (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 4). It usually occurs during sleep,

narcosis, or other circumstanes. People have actually seen their bodies from a

distant point in space. Others observed activities in his/her hospital room

while in a coma (Parapsychology and Survival after Death √ Psychical

Research 2). Haunting is recurrent phenomena reported to occur in particular

locations that include apparitions, sound, movement of objects and other effects

(CRL Parapsychology FAQ 6). Ghosts are often associated with hauntings. Many

times this question arises ⌠Are ghosts real?■. The view today is

that mischievous physical effects historically attributed to ghosts (disembodied

spirits), such as movement of objects, strange sounds, enigmatic odors, failure

of electrical equipment, are actually poltergeist phenomena (CRL Parapsychology

FAQ2 5). Channeling is the claim that a departed spirit or other non-physical

entity, speaks through a sensitive person. In the late 1800▓s it was

called mediumship. Similar claims of communication can be found almost anywhere

though out history and across most cultures. Some researchers believe that cases

of exceptionable prodigies, like Mozart in music or Ramanujan in mathematics,

provide evidence of genuine channeling. Although some stories may be true,

others are completely nonsense. Revealed religions and some visionary

experiences are versions of channeling information. Whether the information came

from a paranormal source or from the channeler▓s unconscious is unknown (CRL

Parapsychology FAQ2 4). Poltergeists are large-scale PK phenomena often

attributed to spirits. But which are now thought to be due to a living person,

frequently adolescent (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 4). Poltergeist comes from the

German word meaning ⌠noisy ghosts■. They usually manifest strange

electrical effects and unexplained movement of objects. They are sometimes

thought to be ghosts. The term ⌠RS PK■ means ⌠Recurrent

Spontaneous PK■ was coined to describe this concept (CRL Parapsychology


Are spirits of deceased human beings appearing frequently in certain places. —

Usually related to a specific place or tragic way of death – Are appearances of

ghost(s) in areas known to the deceased before their deaths. – Activities are

continuous over time, concentrated in the same area. – Are not violent

(Poltergeists 3). – May not be spirits at all. Some theories are that

poltergeists are mass forms of energy that a living person is unknowingly

controlling. – Are usually linked to a specific person or object. – Can be

triggered by a living person▓s trauma in any area, at any time. – Build up

over time to a climax, then start over and can travel anywhere. – Most nearing

the climax of their energy can become dangerous to the living. Inflicting both

mental and physical terror in extreme cases. (Poltergeists 3). There are five

stages of a poltergeist, from level one all the way up to level five when they


Level 1 Senses Attack Early stages – the activity mainly revolves around the

human body▓s five senses. Cold spots, noises, odors/smells, hearing

footsteps, unusual animal activity, feeling of being watched Level 2

communication Noises and smells turn more direct, still at basic level but

turned up a few notches. Whispers, laughs/giggles, moans/shrieking, moving,

shadows, and breeze in closed areas, visible clouds, and marks on floors/walls

(not writing). Level 3 Electrical control Poltergeist begins to make is presence

felt. It is hard not to notice something real is happening (level that the

classic haunting falls into). Lights/electrical appliances turning on and off,

unseen hands grabbing/touching, doors that open and close, hearing voices or

words clearly, full apparitions or dark figures, strange telephone calls. Level

4 Trick-ster Stage May seem that a harmful ghost is getting playful; gains

information. Flying objects, objects disappearing and reappearing elsewhere,

shaking furniture, pushing/shaking people, creating visions/illusions, fires

starting, speaking in ordering tones, household objects breaking for no reason.

Level 5 Danger Level Poltergeist is at its highest energy point and should be

considered dangerous. Varies determining the poltergeist, could last days,

months or years. After this poltergeist goes dormant and the cycle begins again.

Dangerous activity, biting, slapping/punching, rape, fires and burning, blood on

walls, attacked by unseen forces, hair pulled, flying knives or sharp objects,

threatening writings or visual signs. Poltergeists can be linked to an object in

your possession, if you think so, get rid of it. Do not try to move or runaway

√ it will be a waste of time. If you think you are encountering

poltergeist activity find a priest or a local paranormal research group

(Poltergeists 4). To find a job dealing with parapsychology would be very

difficult. One source said that at the present time there are no accredited

programs in psi anywhere in the United States. This does not mean that classes

are not offered, but a person can not get an accredited degree in this topic. If

your primary interest is psi then things can get tough. You will have to forget

most mainstream academic institutions. In terms of realistic career advice, note

that psi is considered ⌠marginal■ at best by mainstream psychology.

The situation in some countries is different, especially England. There are

actually only a few dozen parapsychologists in the world working with

parapsychology, and even fewer getting paid a reasonable salary to do so. Many

students get a degree in something else and still study psi (usually discretely

because it is so thought down upon) (CRL Parapsychology FAQ2 6). There are some

exceptions, and requirements as to what a person can do and still deal with

parapsychology. – Psychological and sociological studies about belief in psychic

phenomena are acceptable topics. – As are anthropological studies of psychic

practices and rituals as expressed in societies. – Pursuing psi as a career also

requires strong entrepreneurial skills, enormous persistence and creativity,

resourcefulness, solid training in one or more of the mainstream sciences or in

a scholarly discipline, and the ability to acknowledge but not acquiesce to the

fads of conventional wisdom. – If you expect fast solutions to easy problems, or

absolute answers to clear questions, then psi is not for you. – If you enjoy

exploring the full range of human potential and challenging status quo, then

there is no better discipline than psi (CRL Parapsychology FAQ2 5). Another

source claimed that there are colleges where parapsychology is being studied.

The first is Parapsychological Association (PA). It is an international

professional society founded in 1957. And then there is the American Association

for the advancement in science founded in 1969 (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 7). There

actually is a decent job for psychics out there, besides television commercials

and so on. Psychic spies have a home at the CIA. The project was first called

⌠Project Grill Flame.■ Then it changed its name to ⌠Center

Lane and Sunstreak.■ The unit was launched in the early 1970▓s. The

group of people was first called ⌠Project Scanate■ which stood for

⌠Scan by coordinate.■ Program managers recruited subjects who

demonstrated psychic abilities. The people were placed in darkened rooms and

given latitude and longitude and asked what they ⌠saw■. The CIA

found this useful, but never really relied on it (Psychic Spies Have a Home at

the CIA 2). Some of the things the psychics saw were unbelievable. One

remote-viewer described an airfield in a different country. The CIA was

impressed but critical. It turned out to be the Soviet Union▓s

ultra-secret nuclear testing area at Semipalalinsh (Psychic Spies Have a Home at

the CIA 3). Another test involved a Soviet Tu-95 ⌠Backfire Bomber■.

The CIA knew it had crashed somewhere in Africa and wanted to find it first. So

a psychic was told to locate the bomber and he did within several miles of the

actual location (Psychic Spies Have a Home at the CIA 3). Remote viewers have

been employed in most international crises over the last two decades. One remote

viewer said, ⌠We were always able to survive, when we stuck to what we did

best: just a guy sitting in a dark room, or even a lit room, focusing on what

was happening elsewhere┘ There was no shaking, no big trance, no spirit

entities speaking in different voices, nothing hoodoo voodoo. It seems to work

enough times to make it valuable as a tip if you will, to where the CIA folks,

or our satellites should be looking■ (Psychic Spies Have a Home at the CIA

3). There are many implications of parapsychology. – Physicists = tend to be

interested in parapsychology because of the implication that we have a gross

misunderstanding about space and time and the transmission of energy and

information. – Psychologists = interested because of what psi implies about the

nature of perception and memory. – Biologists = interested for what psi implies

about the existence of additional, unexplained methods of sensing the world. —

Philosophers = interested because psi phenomena specifically addresses many

age-old philosophical problems including the rate of the mind and the physical

world, and the nature of the objective verse the subject. – Theologians and the

general public = tend to be interested because personal psi experiences are

often accompanied by feelings of profound ineffable meaning. As a result, psi is

thought by some to have ⌠spiritual■ implications (CRL Parapsychology

FAQ 5). There are many reasons why people are interested in parapsychology. Most

of them are because psi phenomena suggests: – that what science knows about the

nature of the universe is incomplete. – that the presumed capabilities and

limitations of human potential have been underestimated. – that fundamental

assumptions and philosophical beliefs about the separation of mind and body may

be incorrect. – That religious assumptions about the divine nature of

⌠miracles■ might have been mistaken (CRL Parapsychology FAQ 5). So

then there is the famous question, Why aren`t psychics breaking the bank in Las

Vegas casinos?■ Casino environments are intentionally designed to be noisy

and visually distracting. For a psychic to make any profits they have to: —

understand the strategies of each game they play – consistently play according

to those strategies – stop when they are ahead – consistently apply strong

reliable psi (CRL Parapsychology FAQ2 7). For a psychic to concentrate they

almost always need an environment with not too many things happening in the

surroundings. So this answers the question as to why psychics are not breaking

the banks in Las Vegas casinos, but it does not exactly answer the question as

to why they are not winning the lottery. But then, how would we know if all the

people that have won in the past were not psychic? Many people assume that

experimenters use the well-known ESP cards. This is a deck to 25 cards with 5

repetitions of 5 cards showing symbols of a square, circle, wavy line, cross or

a star. These were used extensively in the 1930`s – 1960`s. They actually

provided persuasive evidence for ESP, but today are rarely used by professionals

(Parapsychology FAQ2 3). There are some psi experiments going on today. One is

PK on random number generators (RNG). This is when a subject attempts to

mentally change the distribution of random numbers (CRL Parapsychology FAQ2 5).

The next one is ESP in the ganzfeld. Ganzfeld means whale field. It is done with

a telepathic sender and receiver both are isolated and the receiver is put in

the ganzfeld state while the sender is shown a picture. At the end of the

sending period (20-40 minutes) the receiver is shown pictures and has to

predict/guess, which is the correct one. Results show that the correct target is

picked 34% of the time √ which is good (CRL Parapsychology FAQ2 6). And

the last one is remote viewing. This is when a third party selects a picture and

someone is asked to draw it (CRL Parapsychology FAQ2 6). There are many

criticisms of parapsychology. 1) Apparently successful experimental results are

due to sloppy procedures, poorly trained researchers, methodological flaws,

selective reporting and statistic problems Response: Successful results can not

be explained away by these criticisms. – Research by Harvard University

specialists in scientific methods showed that psi research today is conducted

according to proper scientific standards. 2) Psi phenomena violate basic

limiting principles of science, and are therefore impossible. Response: 20 years

ago this was a common criticism to report of psi claims. – The scientific

worldwide view is rapidly changing. 3) Psi does not have a repeatable

experiment. Response: What people have in mind about repeatable are elementary

physics classes demonstrating the acceleration of gravity, etc. (Telepathy 2).

There are many reasons why parapsychology is so controversial. First: – much of

the public often confuses psi with unscientific beliefs and stories about the

paranormal. – Has led many scientists to dismiss the topic as unworthy. —

Therefore they do not take their time to study the existing evidence. – But

understanding it is not easy. – Requires specialized knowledge to understand. —

If people do not understand or believe statistics (which is a misunderstanding).

— They look for in-your-face evidence or the big stuff and will find almost no

credible data. – The truth is that the scientific evidence for some forms of psi

is extremely persuasive (CRL Parapsychology FAQ2 4). Second: even if someone did

want to study the evidence it is hard to obtain (CRL Parapsychology FAQ2 4).

Third: Some people are afraid that psi might be true, fear about psi arises for

the following reasons, – It is associated with diabolic forces, magic and

witchcraft. – It suggests the loss of normal ego boundaries. – People might be

able to read your mind and know that you secretly (or unconsciously) harbor

sexual and aggressive thoughts, or worse. – If you talk about it, people might

think you are crazy. – If you experience psi maybe you are crazy. – Before you

were six, your parents provided negative reinforcement for your little

demonstrations of telepathy. – Thinking of psi leads to medieval superstition

mentality, which in turn support a rising of dangerous primitive thinking. —

With ESP, you might learn things you do not want to know about yourself and

others. – Psi might interfere with the normal human process of ego separation

and development. Therefore we have devised subtle strategies for cultural

inhibition. – If you are telepathic, how will you distinguish other people`s

thoughts from your own? Perhaps this will lead to mental illness. – Many people

have a self-destructive streak to their personality. What damage would result if

psi were used to service in this factor? – If psi exists how many other

cherished beliefs will I have to give up? – If psi exists, does that mean that a

psychic can watch me while using the bathroom facilities? – If psi exists, then

perhaps I cannot wall off myself so easily from the pain and suffering in the

world (CRL Parapsychology FAQ2 7). Parapsychology is not the search of just

anything paranormal or witchcraft-like. It is the study of certain unusual

events associated with human experience. Much of it has been scientifically

proven today and is believed by a great number of scientists. Parapsychology

probably will someday get the recognition it is worth.

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