Реферат: Enviromental Tradeoffs Of MTBE
– Speech Outline Essay, Research Paper
The Environmental Tradeoffs of MTBE
AGood afternoon everyone. If you would, imagine that you are going to spend a day on the lake. When you got there, you looked up into the sky to see, not a bright grinning sun staring back at you, but instead the gray layer of smog that so dominates the central valley. Now, go back and imagine that when you got to the lake, there is a beautiful sun high in the sky, but instead, now there is a strange turpentine like odor radiating from the lake.
B1.This is the controversy that exists over the oxygenate additive in gasoline know as Methyl Tertiart Butyl Ether, or otherwise know as MTBE.
2.MTBE has a positive effect upon our air Quality, but creates a substantial threat upon our drinking water.
CForeshadow:1. There are many benefits to MTBE, but all of witch come with
severe risks to the environment and to your own personal health.
2. These risks even land in our back yard, fortunately there are possible solutions.
3. But, before I get into all that, let me give you a brief background of MTBE.
II Background Information on MTBE
AChemical composition and production:
1. MTBE is a chemical additive placed in gasoline that, essentially make it burn cleaner. 2. Original developed in the 1970?s to boost octane of gasoline. It was then found to improve combustion and reduce tailpipe pollution
3. It is a petroleum refining byproduct; in other words, it is a substance created by the refining process of oil to gasoline.
4. MTBE is an oxygenate because it adds oxygen to gasoline.
B1. First placed in fuel after passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990.
2. The act mandated that gasoline in the smoggiest parts of the country, including the central valley, have at least a 2.7% blend of oxygen. That means about 15% MTBE.
C1. MTBE is not the only oxygenate that manufactures may chose. There is also Ethanol.
Ethanol is a type of alcohol made from corn, thus produced mostly in central U.S.
2. Problem- expensive to produce, and transport, because it cannot be pumped through gas lines due to the threat of water contamination. Instead Ethanol must be mixed at gas stations.
3. This intern would increase gas prices.
III Pros and Cons of MTBE
AMajor Benefit? When added in gasoline, MTBE makes gasoline burn cleaner, thus decreasing pollution.
B1.Terry Wigglesworth, executive director of the Oxygenated Fuels Association reported on Jan. 22, 2000- ?Because of cleaner-burning gasoline with MTBE, cities like Los Angeles are enjoying their best air quality in 50 years?
2. MTBE is now found in 70% of the nation’s gasoline.
3. Locally almost all.
CEven though MTBE has had positive affects, it has reeked havoc on the water supply across the nation. Seeping from underground gas tanks and infiltrating drinking water.
D?The stuff moves like wildfire?.. Once you found out you have a problem, you have a big problem.?? Dennis Cocking of the South Tahoe Public Utility District said on Jan. 20, 2000
EThere is concern across the entire nation. From the North East, where MTBE has been found in 15% of all water, to here in California where Santa Monica has been hit hard.
FMTBE in our drinking water is of special concern, because an Italian study showed MTBE caused kidney and liver cancer in mice, but only at extreme amounts.
IV Local effects, and Solutions for the effects of MTBE
AKern County is no stranger to MTBE, it has been hit hard, namely in the Glennville area.
1.From a single leaking tank, MTBE contaminate reached 20,000 Parts Per Million. Now water is being trucked in from Bakersfield.
2.Lori Jauch, a Glennville resident complained on Jan. 10, 2000, ?Even the ice has a funny smell.?
B1.Here in Bakersfield a mobile home park located at Rosedale and Fruitvale was recently purchased by Equilon Enterprises, the company who owns the nearby refinery.
2. This buy out was due to MTBE contamination of the area’s water in 1998. The area had been receiving bottled water ever since.
C1.Gray Davis, California?s Governor has now stepped in, and written a letter to the EPA or Environmental Protection Agency, asking for a waiver of the federal law demanding oxygenates in California?s gasoline. On, April 12, 1999 Davis wrote ?On March 26, 1999, I concluded that the use of the oxygenate MTBE in California gasoline poses a significant risk to California?s environment, and accordingly, directed that MTBE be phased out of California gasoline as soon as possible?
2.Davis has mandated that all MTBE be eliminated in California by Dec. 31, 2002.
DTo make this elimination possible, and still limit pollution, California will have to turn to the alternative oxygenate, that is Ethanol. Which due to retooling and new transportation cost, will drive up the price of gasoline.
AIn conclusion, I would now like to take you back to that day at the lake. Which do you prefer, a cloudy gray sky, which is also linked to asthma, or turpentine like smell coming from the lake? Hopefully the answer is neither.
BSenator Dianne Feinstein made her decision distinct. She announced on Dec. 6, 1999 ?My goal is simple and direct: to get MTBE out of our drinking water?
CI?m sure we would all enjoy the sun shinning day at the lake without the irritating smell and the risk of cancer, but if this is what you want. Then be ready to walk or pay more at the pumps.
Cocking, Dennis: ?Northeaster States Seek More Control Over MTBE Additive,? Josef Helbert of the Associated Press. January 20, 2000. The Bakersfield California.
Davis, Gray: Letter to Carol M. Browner of the Environmental Protection Agency,? Gray Davis April 12, 1999.
Feinstein, Dianne: ?Statement by U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein on Tosco?s Plans to Eliminate MTBE from California Gasoline.? December 6, 1999.
Jauch, Lori: ?Sold? To Only Bidder,? Kerry Cavanaugh of the Bakersfield California. January 10, 2000. The Bakersfield California.
Wigglesworth, Terry: ?Clean Air Vs. Polluted Water,? John Howard of the Associated Press.
January 22, 2000. The Bakersfield California.