Реферат: Human Rights In Yugoslavia 9899 Essay Research
Human Rights In Yugoslavia (98-99) Essay, Research Paper
Yugoslavia became a Communist state in 1945 under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito, who ruled until his death in 1980. Under Tito, Yugoslavia developed its own form of Communism, independent of control by the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was the most powerful Communist country in the world until 1991.
The Communists in Yugoslavia banned all other political parties. However, they lifted the ban in 1990. That year, the first multiparty elections were held in all the republics. Non-Communist parties won control of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia. Communists renamed Socialists, continued to hold power in Serbia and Montenegro.
National government. In theory, Yugoslavia’s government is democratic. It has an elected parliament and an appointed president and Prime Minister. In practice, however, power is in the hands of Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic. In May 1992, elections were held for parliament. However, opposition parties boycotted the elections, and Milosevic’s party–the Socialist Party of Serbia–won a majority of seats in the legislature. Milosevic’s control of the parliament allowed him to rule in a dictatorial manner.
Local government. Both Serbia and Montenegro have a popularly elected president and parliament. Serbia includes the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. These provinces had many powers of self-government until 1990, when Serbia stripped them of their special status.
Yugoslavia is what remains of a much larger country, also called Yugoslavia that broke up into several independent nations in 1991 and 1992. The new Yugoslavia, like the former, lies on the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. Belgrade is the nation’s capital and largest city.
The name Yugoslavia means Land of the South Slavs. The name comes from the fact that the first Yugoslav state was formed in 1918 with the goal of uniting three groups of South Slavs: the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Yugoslavia’s mix of people gave the country a rich variety of cultures. However, differences in religion, language, and culture eventually contributed to Yugoslavia’s breakup.
From 1946 to 1991, Yugoslavia was a federal state consisting of six republics. In 1991 and 1992, four of the republics–Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia–declared their independence. Fighting then broke out between Serbs and other ethnic groups in Croatia and in Bosnia-Herzegovina. As a result of this fighting, Serbian forces occupied about 30 percent of Croatia’s territory and about two-thirds of Bosnia-Herzegovina. A cease-fire ended most of the fighting in Croatia in January 1992. But in May 1995, Croatian government forces began to take back the areas that were held by the Serbs.
In April 1992, Serbia and Montenegro formed a new, smaller Yugoslavia. However, the United States and most other nations have refused to recognize the country.
After the Communists took control of Yugoslavia in 1945, they began working to develop Yugoslavia from an agricultural country into an industrial nation. The government introduced programs to encourage industrial growth and to raise living standards. At first, government agencies developed and carried out the programs. But in the 1950’s, the government began a system of self-management. Under this system, workers in individual enterprises, such as factories and mines do economic planning. Workers’ council in each enterprise determines production goals, prices, and wages–all based on government guidelines. In the early 1990’s, the new Yugoslav government announced plans to move gradually toward a free-enterprise system. Under such a system, business owners and managers would decide what to produce and how much to charge.
Agriculture still employs a large number of Yugoslavs. Farmers in Serbia and Montenegro grow corn, potatoes, tobacco, and wheat. They also raise cattle, hogs, and sheep. Other important crops in Montenegro include cherries, figs, grapes, olives, peaches, pears, and plums. Farmland covers nearly half of Yugoslavia.
Forests, which cover about a fourth of the country, are an important natural resource. Yugoslavia also has mineral resources. Mines yield bauxite, coal, copper ore, lead, and zinc. Wells in the Pannonian Plains and in the Adriatic Sea produce petroleum and natural gas.
Factories in Yugoslavia make aluminum, automobiles, cement, iron and steel, paper, plastics, textiles, and trucks. A good system of roads extends from Belgrade, the capital. Roads in the rest of the country, especially in Montenegro, are less developed. There are airports in Belgrade, Nis, Podgorica, Pristina, and Tivat.
Communication media have faced censorship in Serbia since 1989, when Slobodan Milosevic became president. Milosevic put two of Serbia’s leading newspapers, Politika and Politika ekspres, under government control. Other major newspapers include Vecernje novosti and Sport of Belgrade, Dnevnik of Novi Sad, and Pobjeda of Podgorica.
Human rights violations
There have been numerous violations against the universal declaration of human rights in Yugoslavia especially during the last year or so against ethnic Albanians in the providence of kosovo. Below I have list the articles of which the government of Yugoslavia violated, further on I will go in to further details and examples of the violations pertaining to each article.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it is independent, and trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non- political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
Details and examples
Opinions denoted in (parentheses)
States that all human beings are born equal and should treat each other in the spirit of brotherhood yet this not the case with the Serbs and the Albanians. President Slobadan Milosevic has expressed hatred to the Albanians and refuses to recognize them as autonomous group and furthermore condones criminal acts against them brought on by the Serbs.
(You tell me is this the way brothers treat each other, I think not my perception of brotherhood Is far from this but yet on the other hand are Albanians treating the Serbs with much brotherhood. The answer is so it is like two rival gangs you do this to me I ll do this to you until some one comes in the picture to mediates. I personally think that if there would be an Albanian president the same oppression that is happening to the Albanians might be happening to the Serbs.)
As of right now in Yugoslavia all Albanians are treated subhuman including any other person trying to aid them they are treated this way cause of religion, race, and political standings. All three of these reasons are violations of article 2.
(In my opinion I think that discriminating other human rights on political standings and religion should not be a violation of human rights, cause there are political standings totally contradicting to the human rights movement. For example if let s say Hitler would have been captured do you
Not agree with me that he should have received the death penalty yet this would have been a violation against the declaration but would it have been if you had discriminated with political standings. I mention also religion cause some religions are pretty much like politics.)
This is a article that has been violated severely from signs of a genocide and the discovery of mass burial sites to Albanians being used as human shields against NATO bombings this is a clear violation that is happening in Yugoslavia.
(There is never an excuse for killing innocent civilians the only exceptions are militant combatants.)
This article hits a little closer to home and every body in the united states should be familiar with it this can be explain by the three army soldiers captured and taken into Yugoslavia as POW not only did they show signs of abuse they also accounted for it on interviews and scenario quotes.
(This a dilemma that we w ill always have cause of the great benefits of torture and degrading acts toward some one cause it is so productive in getting information and getting people to do things they don t want to do)
A quote from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia AI Annual Report says approximately 34 ethnic Albanians political prisoners were convicted, mostly after unfair trials. Scores of others remained in prison. Some may have been prisoners of conscience. Police routinely tortured or ill-treated Detainees and peaceful demonstrators. Most victims were ethnic Albanians from kosovo province, but some were Serbs. At least three people died in police custody. At least three people were sentenced to death.
(Every one should be entitled to a fair trial or else any one can say you did this and this and just cause you are a certain race or color you are not going to be treated fairly and you get the death penalty.)
Members of the old monarch were exiled which is a violation of this article.
(What the government did here was really not that bad cause monarchy is really not fair but they might have treated the Albanians a little better.)
Says that every one has the right to a nationality but basically what the Yugoslavia government is telling the Albanians by forcing them out of kosvo is you are not a Yugoslavian get out of our country.
(Nationality is a form identity and is necessary to maintain a healthy mental state you also need it to protect you and your rights.)
States that every one has the right to own property and know one shall be deprived of his property
Serbian forces deprive people of there property by forcing them out of there homes and making them leave all of there belongings behind or be killed.
(I think you would leave your belongings to if you had the choice of death or your property)
Only communistic opinions are allowed to be expressed and any Albanian demonstration peaceful or not is quickly dismembered usually violently many ethnic Albanians who organize these demonstrations are incarcerated or given death penalty despite the abolishment of the death penalty.
Technically every one is able to participate in the government since supposedly it is a democracy
But it really is and it s not cause president slobadan milosevic was elected but his party is the communist party and we all know how that works. So every one is not able to participate.
The standard of living for Albanians is hard to even conceive yet it is happening since the Serb forces have been forcing the Albanians out of their homes the living conditions worsen every day as more and more Albanians scramble for the border. Border crossings are the most affected by living conditions diseases are prone to come about in the warmer months to come cause of body waste and trash that is not properly disposed of.
In the research I have done on this country and human rights you could basically find violations on all 30 articles which actually is kind of sad and to tell you the truth this one country I would really not like to be in and the saddest thing is that there are country s that are a lot worse. Out of this observation I thought to myself is the united states a lot better not really our perceptive of it is just not there we see the united states as this great country with no problems but are we really different from Yugoslavia no not really .the difference with the united states and Yugoslavia is that we can solve our difference and our check and balance system in society keeps us on check and on balance.