Реферат: Diabeties Essay Research Paper There are two

Diabeties Essay, Research Paper

There are two types of diabetes: diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is a rare metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the pituitary hormone, which is usually the result of damage to the pituitary gland. Diabetes insipidus is characterized by enormous amounts of urine that are produced by the body regardless of how much liquid is consumed. Diabetes mellitus results from the production of insufficient amounts of insulin by the pancreas. Without insulin the body cannot utilize glucose, thus creating a high level of glucose in the blood and a low level of glucose absorption by the tissues. Diabetes mellitus is generally divided into two categories: type I called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes and type II in which the onset of the diabetes occurs during adulthood. The symptoms of the type I diabetic include irritability, frequent urination, abnormal thirst, nausea or vomiting, weakness, fatigue, and unusual hunger. This type of diabetes occurs mostly in children or young adults. The type I diabetic may have an insulin reaction in an instant, seeming perfectly normal one second and becoming unconscious the next. The early warning signs of this type of reaction are hunger, dizziness, sweating, confusion, palpitation, and numbness or tingling of the lips. If left untreated, the insulin-dependent diabetic may also experience double vision, trembling, and disorientation, may perform strange actions, and may eventually lose consciousness. While experiencing any one of these symptoms, quick consumption of a piece of candy, some soda pop, or anything else that contains sugar will bring blood sugar levels back to normal.Recovery is more difficult for the diabetic whose insulin reaction is left untreated for a long period of time. An insulin reaction producing low blood sugar can be life threatening. Therefore, it is safer to “spill” small amounts of urine sugar when taking insulin.The second type of diabetes, often referred to as maturity-onset diabetes, is likely to occur in those with a family history of diabetes and is characterized by blurred vision, itching, unusual thirst, drowsiness, obesity, fatigue, skin infections, slow healing, and tingling or numbness in the feet. Onset of symptoms is usually later in life.Diet often controls this type and insulin is not usually required. Obesity is a major factor in type II diabetes.An estimated 5.5 million Americans are being treated for diabetes. Studies indicate that there are 5 million adults with undetected type II diabetes, and another 20 million have impaired glucose tolerance that may lead to full-blown diabetes. The National Institutes of Health report that undiagnosed diabetes is the reason behind millions losing their vision. Those who are overweight face the greatest risk of developing diabetes. It is the third leading cause of death in the United States.Other signs of diabetes include lingering flu-like symptoms, loss of hair on legs, increased facial hair, small yellow bumps anywhere on the body (known as xanthomas-cholesterol), and inflammation of the penile skin. Diabetes is associated with arteriosclerosis.DIABETES SELF-TESTSType I Diabetes(Insulin-Dependent or Juvenile Diabetes)To test for type I diabetes:1. Purchase chemically treated plastic strips at the drugstore.2. Prick your finger and apply a drop of blood to the tip of the strip.3. Wait one minute and compare the color on the strip to a color chart that lists various glucose levels. (There are various electronic devices available that can analyze the test strip for you and give you a numerical read-out of the glucose level.)There is a new device caned Glucometer 2 (Miles Laboratories, Elkhart Indiana) that can be used at home at your convenience. You simply prick your finger with the spring-loaded needle, apply a drop of your blood to the test strip, and place it into the machine for analysis. This test will give you immediate feedback on your condition.Type II Diabetes (Maturity-Onset Diabetes)Those who do not have an onset of diabetes until adulthood (type II diabetics) are not able to perceive sweet tastes. While addressing the American Diabetic Association, Dr. J. Shan said, “This abnormality may play an important role in how food is perceived by patients and their compliance with diet therapy.” Obesity is common among type II diabetics (those who became diabetic during adulthood). A weight reduction program is usually all that is required to control this type of diabetes without the use of drugs. However, the inability of these patients to perceive sweet tastes makes it more difficult for them to lose weight Because they do not recognize the sweet taste of substances, they often consume sugary products that they do not appreciate as sweet If the type II diabetic attains a better understanding of his food and exercises greater care in his food choices and carefully reads food labels, he will be able to control the problem and avoid drugs or insulin.The following test can detect this impaired ability to taste sweets.1. Do not consume stimulants (coffee, tea, soda) or sweets for one hour before the test.2. Label seven identical glasses as having no sugar, 1/4 teaspoon sugar, 1/2 teaspoon sugar, 1 teaspoon sugar, 11/2 teaspoons sugar, 2 teaspoons sugar, or 3 teaspoons sugar. Fill each glass with eight ounces of water and add the appropriate amount of sugar. Have someone place the glasses out of order and hide the labels.3. Take a straw and sip from each glass, marking which amount you think it is. Between each test rinse your mouth with water According to Dr. Shan, “Most normal people perceive a sweet taste with only one teaspoon or less of sugar in the eight ounces of water. Those with adult-onset diabetes will not perceive sweetness until they have tasted the equivalent of 11/2 to 2 teaspoons of the “sugar water.”J.D Wallach, DVM, ND, and Ma Lan, MD, MS state that “Diabetes: is the number one shame of the “orthodox” doctors in the 20th century. Diabetes is easy to prevent, easy to cure and treat so you can avoid all of the terrible side effects (i.e., blindness, hypertension, amputations. early death, etc.). Since 1958, it has been known that supplemental chromium will prevent and treat diabetes as well as hypoglycemia — just ask any health food store owner or N.D.! The facts associated with chromium and diabetes were published in the Federation Proceeding by Walter Mertz (the director of the U.S.D.A. held services). Here is the ultimate case of a whole specialty of medicine being wiped out by universal Chromium supplements but kept secret and away from the public for economic reasons!!! Additionally the University of Vancouver, BC, Canada stated that “Vanadium will replace insulin for adult onset diabetics”!!! Chromium/vanadium and the diabetes story should be on the front page of the newspaper in the same bold print as VE DAY instead of any type of artificial heart pump that will save one life for $250,000!!!!The diagnosis of diabetes is very easy and it should be considered in any disease where there is a chronic weight loss or weight gain. Frequent urination and chronic thirst are warning signs that should be explored. A six-hour GTT will show a steep rise of blood glucose at 30-60 minutes to over 275-mg% and may keep rising to over 350 and stay elevated after 4-6 hours. The urine should be tested for sugar with the “dipstick” test every time the blood is tested for sugar. A positive diabetic will always include a positive urine sugar during the six-hour GTT. A morning fasting urine sugar test is useless for the initial diagnosis of diabetes. Blood of the diabetic is also typical in that the lipids and cholesterol are elevated as well as the sugar.Treatment of diabetes should include chromium and vanadium at 25 mcg/day in the initial stages to prevent “insulin shock” (sudden dropping of blood sugar because of a relative insulin overdose). Keep checking urine blood sugar before and after meals, as the blood sugar level drops and you can reduce your insulin one or two units per day, go up to 25 mcg b.i.d., then t.i.d.; then go to 50 mcg b.i.d., etc. You will also need to deal with food allergies that cause celiac-type intestinal lesions (i.e., wheat gluten, cow’s milk, Soya, etc.) and supplement with betaine HCl and digestive enzymes at 75-200 mg t.i.d. before meals. Have patience – the intestinal lesions take 60-90 days to heal”. VanadiumMetallic vanadium (vanadyl sulfate) is absorbed from the intestinal tract ver) poorly at only O. 1 to 1.0 %; vanadium chelates at 40 % and plant derived colloidal! at up to 98 %. Vanadium was proven to be an essential trace mineral in 1971. Vanadium stimulates glucose (blood sugar) oxidation and transport in fat cells and glycogen (anima starch) synthesis in liver and muscle, and inhibits liver gluconeogenisis (production of glucose from fat) and absorption of glucose from the gut Vanadium enhances the stimulating effect of insulin on DNA synthesis. Despite low serum insulin, the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats fed vanadium was the same as normal controls.Vanadium appears to function like insulin by altering cell membrane function transport processes, therefore vanadium has a very beneficial effect for humans with glucose tolerance problems (i.e. hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and diabetes) by making the cell membrane Insulin receptors more sensitive to insulin. Seven cultures including American Indians, Hispanics and Hawaiians have an increased rate (diabetes when they cease to eat their ethnic foods and consume canned, processed an fast foods. Vanadium supplementation can have a major positive economic Impact by reducing or even eliminating most cases (adult onset diabetes – diabetes alone cost American taxpayers a minimum of $105 billion each year Vanadium inhibits cholesterol synthesis in animals and humans; this is followed by decreased plasma levels of cholesterol are reduced aortic cholesterol. Vanadium initiates an increase In the contractile force of heart muscle known as the “isotropic effect” Vanadium has known anti-carcinogenic properties. Induction of mouse mammary tumor growth was blocked by feeding 25 mcg of vanadium per gram of diet The vanadium supplement reduced tumor Incidence, average tumor count per animal and prolonged median cancer free time without inhibiting overall growth or health of the animals (sure beats chemotherapy and radiation I).Clinical diseases associated with Vanadium deficiency include: Slow growth Increased infant mortality Elevated cholesterol Elevated triglycerides Hypoglycemia Hyperinsulinemia Diabetes Cardiovascular disease Obesity 1. McNeill, J.H.: Biological Effects of Vanadium. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. June 16,1993.2. Nielsen, F.H.: Vanadium. In Trace Elements in Human and and Animal Nutrition. Vol. 1.5th ed (Mertz,W.ed) 1987.ChromiumChromium activates phosphoglucosonetase and other enzymes and is tightly associated with GTF (glucose tolerance factor – a combination of chromium III, dinicotinic acid and glutathione). The reported plasma levels of chromium in humans over the past 20 years has ranged from 0.075 to 13 ng/ml. Concentrations of chromium In human hair Is ten times greater than in blood making hair analysis a much more accurate view of chromium stores and function In the human (there is 1.5mg in the human body).Very little inorganic chromium is stored in the body, once inorganic chromium is absorbed, it is almost entirely excreted in the urine (therefore urine chromium levels can be used to estimate dietary chromium status). Dietary sugar loads (i.e; colas, apple juice, grape juice, honey, candy, sugar, fructose, etc.) increase the natural rate of urinary Cr. loss by 300 % for 12 hours. The average intake of 50 to 100 ug of inorganic chromium from food and water supplies only 0.25 to 0.5 mcg of usable chromium, by contrast 25 % of chelated chromium is absorbed. The chromium RDA for humans is a range of 50 to 200 mg per day for adults.The concentration of chromium is higher in newborn animals and humans than it is in later life. In fact, the chromium levels of unsupplemented human tissue steadily decreases throughout life of even more concern has been the steady decline In the average American serum chromium since 1948:The fasting chromium plasma level of pregnant women is lower than that of non-pregnant women. Increasing impairment of glucose tolerance In “normal” pregnancy Is well documented and reflects a chromium deficiency oftentimes resulting In pregnancy onset diabetes. One study demonstrated abnormal glucose tolerance in 77 percent of clinically “normal” adults over the age of 70. According to Richard Anderson, USDA, “90 percent of Americans are deficient in chromium.”Gary Evans, Bemidji State University, Minnesota, very clearly showed an increased life span in laboratory animals by 33.3 per cent when they were supplemented with chromium. Prior to this study gerontologlsts, led by Roy Walford, felt a severe restriction of calories was the only way to extend life past the expected average. Deficiencies of chromium in humans are characterized by a wide variety of clinical diseases as well as a shortened life expectancy. The clinical diseases of chromium deficiency are aggravated by vanadium deficiency Treatment of diabetes should also include zinc at 50 mg t.i.d., B-complex at 50 mg t.i.d. (be sure to include niacin which is part of the GTF “glucose tolerance factor”), essential fatty acids at 5 gm t.i.d., B-12 at 1,000 mcg/day, bioflavonoids including quercetin at 150 mg/day, copper at 2-3 mg/day, lecithin at 2,500 mg t.i.d. and glutathione at 100 mg/day. High fiber, no processed carbohydrates and avoid meat in the beginning stages of the therapy –the reason is that every time you eat processed carbohydrates (i.e., sugar, honey, alcohol, mashed potatoes, etc.) you will loose 300% more chromium in your urine than when you consume complex carbohydrates! Herbs are useful in treating diabetes and may include licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), jaborandi (Pilocarpus jaborandi), yarrow (Achillea Millefolium), Canadian fleabane (Erigeron canadense) and Jerusalem artichoke.HERBSIf you suffer from diabetes you may wish to try the following herbs: buchu leaves, dandelion root, golden-seal and uva ursi. In addition, huckleberry helps to promote insulin production and a tea made of ginseng is believed to lower the blood sugar level. RECOMMENDATIONSA high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet reduces the need for insulin and also lowers the fat levels in the blood. Olive oil may help adult-onset diabetes. Fiber will reduce blood sugar surges. Eat crackers with nut butters or cheese. Use oat and rice bran crackers. High fat levels are linked to heart disease. Spirulina helps produce a stable blood sugar level. Go on a spirulina diet consisting of raw fruits and vegetables as well as fresh juices. This diet will help to reduce sugar in the urine. Foods that help normalize blood sugar include berries, brewer’s yeast, dairy products (especially cheese), egg yolks, fish, garlic, sauerkraut, soybeans, and vegetables. A low-protein diet consisting of less than 40 grams of protein each day is recommended for diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease). Avoid large amounts of PABA, white flour products, and salt. Consumption of these products results in an elevation of blood sugar. It is important to get protein from a vegetable source. CONSIDERATIONSDo not take large doses of cysteine. It has the ability to break down the bonds of the hormone insulin. Be careful not to take extremely large doses of vitamins B1 and C. Excessive amounts may inactivate insulin. They may, however, be taken in normal amounts. Type II diabetics should avoid large amounts of niacin, but niacinamide for type I diabetics slows down destruction of beta cells in the pancreas and enhances their regeneration, extending the remission time. The statements and products in this article have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration, and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease.ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATIONFor more information on diabetes, contact the following organizations:American Diabetes Association1660 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314(703) 549-1500International Diabetes Center5000 W. 39th StreetMinneapolis, MI 55416(612) 927-3393Joslin Diabetes FoundationOne Joslin PlaceBoston, MA 02215617) 732-2415Juvenile Diabetes Foundation60 Madison AvenueNew York, NY 10010-1550(212) 889-7575

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