Реферат: Presidents Essay Research Paper George WashingtonGeorge Washington
Presidents Essay, Research Paper
George Washington was the father of our country. He was a
strong individual. Washington was born in 1732 in Westmoreland county,
Virginia. His father, Augustine Washington was a planter, known to his friends as Gus. His mother was Mary Bell Washington.
George Washington was self-taught and self-reliant. He copied 110 rules of civility and decent behavior. Washington learned all of his morals from books. Washington?s mother didn?t send Washington to any special school, she sent him to a common colonial village in Virginia. Who taught Washington is unknown, but by age 11, he had developed good reading, writing, and mathematic skills. Math was his best subject. He used his mathematical mind to survey land, which was needed in Virginia at the time.
At 21 he was sent by the Governor of Virginia to warn the French, which led to the French and Indian War. By then he was an officer. Two years later he was named commander in chief of the Virginia Military. In 1759, Washington, 26, married Martha Dandridge Curtis, 27. She was widow of two children. When she was 18 she married Daniel Parke Curtis. They had four children together, but only two survived childhood. In 1775, George Washington became commander in chief of the Continental Army. This gave him a lot of power over the country?s future.
After the war ended the states couldn?t survive as independent
entities. Men from various states met and were asked to elect a president. They did this because they thought this would tie the states together. Washington, a federalist, was the obvious choice to be the first president of the United States. He was a well-proven leader to all of America. Not one vote was cast against him.
Washington served two full terms. He was asked to a third,
but refused. He believed one should not serve more than two terms. He died on December 14, 1799, three years after the end of his second term. Washington was buried at Mount Vernon.
In conclusion, George Washington was truly the father of
our country. He fought hard for us. But most of all, he led us in the right direction.
John Adams was a well-minded president. He was born October 30,1735 in Braintree, Massachusetts. (Which is now Quincy, Massachusetts.) He was the son, and named after, John Adams. His father was a farmer and a leather craftsman. Adam?s mother, Susanna Boylston Adams, was a bad tempered housewife. She disliked the poor, but still wanted the best for her son.
Adams was taught to read by his father while he was very young. This gave him a head on his peers in the classroom. Adams progressed to the Joseph Cleverly Latin School. He totally regretted it. He hated the dreary assignments and wanted to go farther in math. Adams promised to take assignments more seriously if he was sent to Harvard. He was, and became an average student. Adams graduated at Harvard in 1755. After that he went into studying law. He had a luminous legal mind. This is what got Adams started in his political life.
In 1764, Adams married Abigail Smith. Four years later he settled in Boston. He was known for his writing. In 1783 he joined with John Jay and Benjamin Franklin to negotiate the Treaty of Arms.
John Adams was a federalist. He kept The United States at a neutral position and felt we were not ready for war. John Adams also appointed Washington commander in chief and insisted Jefferson write the Declaration of Independence.
John Adams was the second president. Neither him nor his
opponent, Thomas Jefferson, were elected formally. As Vice President and with the endorsement of retiring Washington, Adams went on to be the next president. He wasn?t reelected. Thomas Jefferson defeated him by three electoral votes.
John Adams died July 4, 1826, exactly 50 years after the
Declration of Independence was signed. Adams was weak for months before he died. Mostly from pnemonia and heart failure. His last words were, ?Thomas Jefferson still survives.? At age 90, John Adams was the longest-living president. He was buried in Quincy, Massachusetts.
In conclusion, John Adams was a very well minded president.
If it weren?t for him, we may have been in a war. He was a hard working respectable person.
Thomas Jefferson, an intelligent man, was born April 13, 1743, at Shadwell plantation in Goochland county (now Ablemarle), Virginia. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter, surveyor, and public official. In 1739 he married Jane Randolph Jefferson. Peter Jefferson was a landowner who had over 5,000 acres of land in Virginia.
From age 9-14 Thomas Jefferson studied at Saint James Parish in Northam. Because it was far from Shadwell, he boarded with the clergymen during the school term. He had a lot of interests growing up. Some were writing, music, architertry and law and politics. In 1760, Jefferson enrolled at the College Of William And Mary. During his two years there, his studies
included science, mathematics, rhetoric, philosophy, and literature with Dr. William Small. While at College. Jefferson was part of the Flat Hat Club, a social fraternity. Jefferson also studied law for five years, then was later admitted to the Virginia Bar in 1767.
Thomas Jefferson?s lawful mind and good writing came in handy when he wrote the Declaration of Independence. John Adams insisted he did. Jefferson declared all men are created equal. He also believes in religious liberties.
Thomas Jefferson was a Republican. During the nomination
of 1800, Jefferson and Aaron Burr?s election ended in a tie, while John Adams was beaten by 8 electoral votes. The House of Representatives said that they would chose in stead of a reelection. Jefferson won. Jefferson served two terms. He was asked for a third, but refused believing that a president should not serve more then two terms.
When Jefferson retired, he went to Monticello. Unfortunately, Jefferson was $24,000 in debt. His only income was several thousand dollars in crops. To pay it off, he sold his land to the United States. While at Monticello, he helped build the University of Virginia. Monticello was Jefferson?s home for 50 years. He died July 4, 1826, of an enlarged prostate. His home, a 33 room red brick mansion still stands. He was buried in Monticello.
In conclusion, Thomas Jefferson was an intelligent man. He
pushed himself in colllege and always wanted a challenge. His greatest feat was the writing of The Declaration of Independence.
James Madison, the father the Consitution, was born at
midnight on March 16, in the home of his grandparents at Port Conway, King George County, Virginia. The Reverend William Davis of Hanover Parish baptized him on March 31, 1751. James Madison?s father, James Madison, Sr., was a planter that died when he was only nine. His mother, Eleanor Rose Conway Madison, was very close to him as a child.
From age 11 to 16 Madison studied under Donald Robertson
in Kings and Queen County, Virginia. ?All that I have been in life, I owe largerly to that man,? said Madison. Madison learned math, geography, and modern and ancient languages. His best subject was Latin. In 1769 he enrolled at Princeton University. Madison, while there, lost sleep to study after hours. Even though, he graduated in only two years.
At the age of 43 James Madison married Dolly Payne Todd,
who was only 26 at the time. Dolly Payne Todd was a Quaker. She spent her early years on the family plantation in Goochland County, Virginia.
Madison was a delegate to the Constitution convention
in 1787. He earned title Father of Constitution for his role in drafting much of the document. He also argued sucessfully for the creation of a strong central government. Madison was also the one who kept a record of the proceedings.
James Madison was a Republican of the presidential
nomination of 1808. For the first time, Republicans were divided over their choice of president. Thomas Jefferson was openly in favor of Madison. Madison?s two opponents were Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina and George Clinton. Madison won by 75 electorial votes. Madison was reelected the next term against George Clinton.
Madison retired in Montpelier. Even though he was one
of the largest landowners in Orange County Virginia, his wheat and poor tobacco didn?t make a lot income. Even though he didn?t have much money, he was determined to pay off his stepson?s gambling debt.
For the last six months of his life Madison was crippled by rheumatism. He suffered bilious attacks and steadily weakened. Madison reportly was offered stimulants to keep him alive until the Fourth of July, so that he could join the other three presidents that died on that historic date, but he refused. On June 28, 1836, he had trouble swallowing his breakfast. His head suddenly dropped and he died from heart failure. Madison was 85. He was buried at Montpelier.
In conclusion, James Madison was the Father Of the Constitution.
His great works on it and as a president earned him that title.
James Monroe was born on April 28, 1758 in Westmoreland
County, Virginia. His father, Spence Monroe, was a planter and carpenter. His mother, Elizabeth Monroe said was ?an amiable and respectable woman.? According to Monroe.
From age 11-16, Monroe studied at Campbelltown Academy. This was a very good school and it was run by Reverend Archibald Campbell. He progressed through Latin and math at a rate faster then most boys his age. At 16, Monroe entered the College of William and Mary. He dropped out later to join the Continental Army. He never returned for a degree. During 1780-1783 hestudied law under Thomas Jefferson.
Monroe was a candiate for both Jefferson and Madison. He was a republican. In the election of 1816 his opponent was Rufus King of New York. King was a federalist. Madison beat Rufus King in the election of 1816. A reelection came and Monroe got all the votes except one, to Quincy Adams. The only vote against him was from William Pulmer, governor of New Hampshire. He did this because he believed that only George Washington should be the only president that was great enough to be unanimously voted president.
On July 4, 1831 Monroe died of a hacking cough. Doctors now believe it was tuberculosis. Monroe slowly weakened during his last three months. He died very peacefully from heart failure and was the third president to die on July 4.
In conclusion, James Monroe was a great president. His terms
will always be remembered as ?The Era of Good Feelings.?
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams was born on July 11, 1767 in Braintree, Massachuetts. (Now Quincy Massachuetts) His father was John Adams the second President of the United States. His mother was Abigail Smith Adams. The only woman to be wife of one president and a mother of another, she died while John Quincy Adams was secretary of state. Adams was the second of four children to live to maturity. Adams had one older sister and two younger brothers.
Since there was no school in Braintree during the revolution John Quincy Adams was tutored by his parents and a pair of his father?s law clerks, John Thaxter and Nathan Rice. By age ten he was already reading Shakespeare. He received his first formal education at the Passy Academy outside Paris where he studied fencing, dance, music and art. With his father he worked through problems in algebra, geometry, trigonometry and calculus. In Amsterdam his father enrolled him in a Latin school, but he disliked it there and in 1781 transferred to Leyden University. When he returned to America in 1785 Adams had mastered Latin, Greek, French, Dutch and Spanish. In order to qualify for advanced placement as a junior at Harvard Adams studied for a time under his uncle the Reverend John Shaw in Haverhill, Massachusetts. He graduated second of the fifty-one students in his class of 1787.
In the election of 1825 Adams opponents were Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford and Henry Clay. The campaign turned on rivalies of the four candidates. Adams apparent formal manner compared unfavorable with Jackson?s downhome style. Because none of the four presidential candidates received a majority of the electorial votes, the election was put into the House of Representatives for a decision. They elected Adams. When the reelection came John Quincy Adams lost to Andrew Jackson.
On November 20, 1846 Adams suffered a mild stroke while in Boston. After several week of rest he recovered. On February 21, 1848 just a while after shouting ?no? against a proposal to decorate certain generals serving in the Mexican War, Adams suffered a second stroke. This one massive and he soon died two days later on February 23, 1848. He was buried in Quincy, Massachusetts.
In conclusion, Adams was an excellent scholar, lawyer and diplomat.
Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767 in the Waxhaw region on the border of North Carolina and South Carolina. The exact place of his birth is unknown. Andrew Jackson?s father was a farmer in County Antrim, Ireland; he married Elizabeth ?Betty? Hutchinson. In 1765 Andrew Jackson?s father sold his land and emigrated to America.
At age 13 Jackson, along with his older brother Robert joined the Continental Army. He served as a messenger under Colonal William Davis and was present at the Battle of Hanging Rock in August of 1780.
Andrew Jackson was orphaned at age 14. Jackson grew up a spirited combative young man. He would be quick to punch anyone who dare cross him. He was especially sensitive to any kind of criticism. He was a good fist fighter and a fast runner, but he was too light to wrestle well.
From age 8 to 13 Jackson learned the basics and studied classics under Dr. William Humphries, but Jackson was never a particularly good student and certainly had no intention of entering the clergy, which is mother wanted. He remained a poor speller all his life. His grammar was also faulty. When he returned to Waxhaw he studied briefly at the New Acquision School of Robert McCulloch. Then he taught school himself one year. In 1784 he left the Waxhaw region to become a lawyer. In Salisbury, North Carolina, he studied law for two years under Spruce McCay. In his spare time he gambled, drank, chased women and took dancing lessons. In September, 1787 he was admitted to the North Carolina bar.
In 1791 Andrew Jackson married Rachel Donelson Robards at Natchez, Mississippi. They were both 24. Their marriage was invalid because Rachel?s divorce from her first husband, Lewis Robards, had not yet become final.
By 1828 the people were ready for a president who could be known as a man of the people. The Democratic-Republican Party was breaking into groups. One part was lead by Andrew Jackson, the Democratic Party. In the election of 1828 Jackson won over John Quincy Adams. He also won his reelection against Henry Clay.
Jackson?s last years were spent in great pain. Cronic tuberculsis left him with just one functioning lung and the other one impaired. His right eye went blind from a cateract. Diarrhea took away his strength and he needed an operation to drain water that built up in his abdomin. Soon after waking up on the morning of June 8, 1845 he fell unconscious and died.
In conclusion, Andrew Jackson grew up an outgoing child, but lead the country as a man for the people.
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren, a political man, was born on December 5,
1782 at Kinderhook, New York. He was the first president born an American citizen. All the presidents before him were born before the Declaration of Independence was signed and therefore were British. His father, Abraham Van Buren, was a farmer, and owner of a handful of slaves and a tavern keeper. His mother was Maria Hoes Van Alen Van Buren.
Van Buren learned the basics at a dreary, poorly lit schoolhouse in his village and later studied Latin at Kinderhook Academy. His formal education ended before he reached fourteen, when he began studying law with Francis Sylvester. There he read law and copied documents. At the age of 15 he was allowed to sum up a routine case before his first jury. After six years under Sylvester he spent a final year of apprenticeship in the New York City office of William P. Van Ness. Van Buren was admitted to the bar in 1803.
Democrats met in Baltimore in May, 1835 to nominate unamimously on the first ballot Martin Van Buren for president. Van Buren opponents were Hugh Lawson White who was in a new party, the Whigs, Daniel Webster and William Henry Harrison. Van Buren was able to beat out all three parties.
During his last months, Martin Van Buren, suffered a server attack from bronchial asthma and weakened steadily. After exchanging a few last words with his sons he fell unconscious and the next morning, July 24, 1862, he died of heart failure. At his request no bells rang at his funeral which was held in Kinderhook, New York.
In conclusion, Van Buren was a totally political man and believed ?government was best which governed least.?
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison, a one of a kind president was born on February 9, 1773 at Berkeley plantation, Charles City County, Virginia. He was the last president born a British citizen. His father was Benjamin Harrison V. Ben Harrison served in the House of Burgesses. William?s mother was Elizabeth Bassett. He was the youngest of seven children. Harrison had four sisters and two brothers. Later he would have five sons and four daughters.
With his brothers and sisters Harrison learned the basics from tutors on Berkeley plantation. Harrison decided on a career in medicine. When he was fourteen he enrolled at Hampden-Sydney College in Prince Edward County for premedical instructions. There he studied classical languages, geography, history, mathematics and rhetoric. He especially liked military history. As an Episcopalian, he dropped out of school when it became Methodist. He transferred to an academy in Southhampton County where he remained briefly before becoming an apprentice to Dr. Andrew Lieper. The next year he enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School. When he arrived in Philadelphia there was word that his father died. In his father?s wishes he continued to study at the medical school for a while, but when his money ran out, he abandoned the idea of becoming a doctor and, in August 1791, joined the army.
William Henry Harrison was a Whig in the presidential election of 1840. His only opponent was Van Buren, which he beat by over 150 electorial votes. At his inaguration he refused to wear an overcoat to show his good health. Harrison also rode on horseback in a parade for two hours. As a result he came down with pneumonia and died just one month later after taking office.
In conclusion, William Henry Harrison, was a one of a kind president. He was the oldest person, at 68, to be elected president, the first to die in office, and served the shortest term.
John Tyler was born March 29, 1790 at Greenway, Charles City County, Virginia. His father, also John Tyler, was a planter and owner of some forty slaves. He was an admirer of Thomas Jefferson and supported the American Revolution. John Tyler?s mother is Mary Armistead Tyler. He was the sixth of eight children; Tyler had five sisters and two brothers. He later would also have many children himself, fourteen to live to maturity.
At age 12 Tyler enrolled in a prep school of the College of William and Mary. He progressed to the college level in graduated in 1807. Besides the general subjects his studies included, english literture, history and economics. John Tyler was a very good student. He especially liked economics. On graduation day, at age seventeen, he returned home to Charles City County where he studied law successively with his father, cousin, and the Richmond office of Edmund Randolph, the first U.S. Attorney General. John Tyler was admitted into the bar in 1809.
When John Tyler was 23 he married Letitia Christian, who was a year younger, at Cedar Grove, which was her home. Letitia died of a second stroke on September 10, 1842. She was buried at her birthplace, Cedar Grove. Two years later, John Tyler married Julia Gardiner. She was less than half his age. They married in New York City. Julia would later die in 1889 of a stroke too.
John Tyler was elected into office due to the death of William Harrison. He was a very disagreeable person and vetoed many bills in office, which lead to his entire Cabinet members resigning.
John Tyler, after checking into the Exchange Hotel in Richmond,
died of complication of bronchitis on January 17, 1862. He was buried in Richmond, Virginia.
In conclusion, John Tyler had no support of people, which is unfortunate because he could have had harmony among his country.