Реферат: Colombia Essay Research Paper Colombia is located
Colombia Essay, Research Paper
Colombia is located in the northwestern part of South America. Colombia’s neighboring countries are Panama, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador. It has coasts on both the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Their relations with these countries are very good because of the trading factor. Colombia’s relations with Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador are very strong because they are all apart of a trading agreement known as the Andean Group. Colombia’s relations with Brazil and Panama are also very strong because the two countries are both main trading partners with Colombia.
Throughout Colombia’s history there government has been very unstable, going through many rulers and constitutions. On August 7, 1819 Angostura broke away from Spain and created a country known as Colombia. On August 30, 1821 the Congress of Cucuta adopted a constitution which was supposed to be a republican form of government. This constitution was short lived. In 1853 another constitution was developed and again was abandoned after civil war broke out, which led to a new constitution in 1863. After a revolt of several liberal elements in 1885, again a new constitution was created. This constitution created sovereign states and the basic structure of the country. This constitution lasted over 100 years until it was again changed in 1991 to a centralized republican form of government which is still intact today. Politically the government is fairly stable know even though the are put through great criticism form many countries about there on going drug production.
The cultural unity of Colombia is very good. Colombia’s culture is fairly diversified. About 58% of the people are mestizo, 20% are of unmixed European ancestry, 14% are mulatto, and the final 8% are made up of blacks, Native Americans, and people of mixed race. There is very little cultural or ethnic disputes between the different cultures of people. About 95% of the population are Roman Catholics, so there is very little, if any, religious conflicts. So, all together the cultural unity is very strong.
Colombia’s economic situation is very steady. Colombia experienced rapid industrial growth in recent decades and undertook an economic reform program that opened its economy to international trade and investment. Colombia was the only country that maintained scheduled payments on loans during a debt crisis in the 1980’s. For these reasons Colombia enjoys the highest credit ratings in the region. They have diversified there economy in which they no longer just depend on there large crop of Coffee but have turned to mining such things as fossil fuels, precious metals, and emeralds. One particular crop that many people don’t throw into Colombia’s annual budget is the illegal growth and trade of cocaine which reportedly has profits worth over $300 million annually.
Colombia’s economic activities are very diversified. Colombia has a very large coffee crop but in addition to coffee they have many more cash crops. These crops are cacao beans, sugarcane, bananas, tobacco, cotton and cut flowers. Colombia’s main food crops are rice, potatoes, cassava and plantains. Also, plants such as pita, sisal and hemp are also cultivated because of the use of fibers in the plants that are used to manufacture cordage and coarse sacking materials. Colombia’s population of cattle, hogs, sheep, and horses has also increased greatly throughout the 1990’s.
Colombia also has many diversified natural resources. Petroleum and gold are Colombia’s main mineral products. Besides those two many other minerals are extracted, such as silver, emeralds, platinum, copper, nickel, coal and natural gas. Production of crude petroleum is centered in the Magdalena river valley. Much of the oil extracted from this is shipped to Curacao for refining. Many new oil reserves have been found and are expected to make Colombia energy self sufficient well into the 21st century.
Colombia’s international trade is spread out between many countries. The United States is Colombia’s main trading partner, and Venezuela, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Brazil, and Peru also have a significant amount of trade with the country. Regional trade is also very good with Colombia’s neighboring countries because of the Andean Group and the Association of Caribbean States.
Colombia is a very diverse country with many different agricultural goods and natural resources. Colombia is a rapidly growing country in every aspect. There economy is growing, and since 1991 so is there government. Colombia, in the near future, will be a economic power house which can only be rendered by itself.