Реферат: POP ART
USStyle and design (20thcentury) –
PopArt, Commercial Photography
The twentieth centuryis the first century of self-conscious, total design at every levelof our living and environment. Care and vision in application ofdesign have come to be demanded in every aspect of modern life –from our kitchens and bathrooms, to our factories and workshops, fromour clothes and domestic objects, to the packaging of pocketcalculators or the structuring of plastic dining chairs.
Althoughthe word has been used since at least the fifteenth century, whenItalian writers spoke of 'disegno' in describing the quality of linepossessed by an image or artifact, in all essentials 'design' is anindustrial or post-industrial concept. With the introduction ofmass-production, the people who invented ideas for objects becameseparated from the people who made them who, again, were separatedfrom the people who sold them. The industrial revolution also createdthe concept of the market. Personal need, or the whims of a patron,were replaced by a more abstract demand: the tastes of a large,amorphous body of consumers.
Themodern designer came into being as an intermediary between industryand the consumer. His role was to adapt the products of industry tothe mass market, to make them more useful and durable, perhaps, butto make them more appealing and commercially successful,certainly. Commercial success is the touchstone of achievementin design, although designers in different cultures have often takendifferent views as to how the achievement is measured or the successvalidated.
So,design in business and advertisement means much. The story of stylein the applied arts since the mid-to late fifties has been dominatedby various new forces, including social and economic factors andcertain aspects of technical and scientific progress. Now we havecomputer design, web design, advertisement design ( for exampleconsumer-product branding design) and the whole fashion of differenttypes of ad, colors and so on.
Thelate fifties saw the birth of advertising as we know it today, ahigh-powered business dedicated to the development effectivemarketing techniques; it involved new design concepts and a whole newprofessional jargon of product packaging, market research, corporateimages and house style.
ThePOP Artmovement embraced the work of a new generation of artists of latefifties and early sixties of both sides of the Atlantic. In Britain,in addition to the Independent Group, there were Peter Blake, AllenJones. In USA Jasper Johns, Tom Wesselman, Claes Oldenburg and otherformalized the language of product packaging, from beer cans toCampbell's Soup tins of strip cartoons, fast food, advertisinghoardings and pin-ups.
PopArt at once reflected and glorified mass-market culture and injecteda new vigour into the applied arts. Pop and the art styles which wereits natural successors, notably American Hard-Edge Abstraction andthe Hyper- or Photo-realist school of around1970, suggested a newpalette o colours and gave a fresh, ironical edge to the imagery ofpopular culture. The Pop ethic posi lively encouraged designers toexploit vulgarity brashness and bright colour, and to use syntheticor disposable materials in contexts in which they would formerly havebeen unacceptable. Pop has had a lasting effect on design in a widevariety of media, including interiors, graphics and fashion.
Pophas spawned furniture in bright, primary-coloured plastics and inboldly printed fold-away cardboard; it has inspired, notably inBritain and Italy, witty sculptural furniture in brash, syntheticmaterials reminiscent of the sculptures of Claes Oldenburg. Thefashion and furniture shop Mr Freedom, opened in London in1969 by Tommy Roberts,was a veritable shrine to the Pop cult, with lively furniture designsby Jon Weallans. Italian Pop furniture was one aspect of the Italiandesign community's wide-ranging intellectual approach which,since the sixties, has made Italy the most progressive country inmany areas of the applied arts.
The influence of Pop can be seen ingraphic design in the sixties in the work of the American PushpinStudios, founded by Milton Glaser and Seymour Chwast. Pop and theHyper-Realists also inspired the slick airbrush work of a number ofgraphic artists working in the seventies and eighties, notably theBritish artists Philip Castle and Michael English. Pop imagery isstill, today, a part of the staple diet of graphic design.
Pop'smost notable impact on the world of fashion was in London in the latesixties and early seventies, and in Italy in the achievements of ElioFiorucciin the seventies. Fiorucci brought fun into fashion, and hisshops, first in Milan and then internationally, became known fortheir Pop-inspired clothes and graphics.
Andit's influence can be seen also and on a graphic design in USA. POPis everywhere, we see everyday objects and images of American popularculture – Coca-Cola bottles, soup cans, sigarette packages andcomic strips.
Commercialphotographicimages are a major ingredient of our visual life, assimilated frommagazines, hoardings and such contexts as brochures, catalogues,calendars, packaging and point-of-sale promotional material.Commercial photography thrives as a means of creating highly polishedimages of a stylized, glamourized and idealized view of the World inorder to sell a product or a service.
The major categories of commercialphotography are advertising in its countless guises, includingproduct photography and photo-illustration, fashion, beauty andcertain categories of photography which are neither reportagenor aspire to be fine art, yet which can be fascinating socialdocuments of considerable aesthetic quality.
Irving Penn has continued to be amaster in each of these genres and has set standards to which manyaspire. His career has spanned forty years, during which his work,from his early fashion and still-life compositions to currentstill-life product studies such as his series for the cosmeticsmanufacturers Clinique, has shown an inimitable vision andconsistent aesthetic rigour.
Ben Stern, though far from beingPenn's artistic equal, became the archetypal commercial photographerin the fifties and sixties, running a vast studio in New York andshowing considerable skill and versatility in interdivting the briefsof art directors and clients.
Inthe sixties the profession of commercial and, in particular, fashionphotography became greatly glamourized: the successful youngphotographer became a popular folk hero, as if the camera were apassport to the illusory world which it could depict—Antonioni's film Blow-Up(1966-7) defined therole model. Among the most interesting magazines to be launchedin the sixties, the photography of which captured the youthfulexcitement of that period, were the British Nova,which commissioned someof the best fashion photography of its day, and the German Twen,brilliantly art directedby Willy Fleckhaus.
Inthe sixties advertising played a secondary role to editorialphotography in magazines. Today the reverse seems true, for thecharacter of many magazines is dictated by the market needs ofadvertisers and many photographers bemoan the greater restrictionsthis imposes. The seventies and eighties have, nonetheless, broughtforth a new roll-call of talent. Outstanding contemporary figuresinclude Helmut Newton and Guy Bourdin, who have dominated the fieldof fashion photography; Hans Feurer, Arthur Elgort, Denis Pieland others, a few of the less celebrated but talented fashionphotographers; advertising and glamour photographers such as FrancisGiacobetti, James Baes…
Commercialphotographers play a great role in our consumer society, creating theimages of a life-style to which we are constantly encouraged toaspire. They create glamourized images of women and give a heightenedvisual appeal to the products which are economic mainstay of oursociety, be it a hamburger, a perfume or an automobile.