Реферат: Cultural Values

 «<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Urals</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Technical</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> — UPI»

Foreign language department


«Cultural Values»

Student:Zaitseva S.V.


Supervisor:Hramushina Zh.A.



<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:RU;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Table of contents:

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Summary                                                                                                                   3

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Key words                                                                                                                  4

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Introduction                                                                                                               5

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">1.<span Times New Roman"">  

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Definitions:beliefs, values                                                                                  7

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The value /belief puzzle                                                                                 8

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Contrastiveorientations                                                                                  12

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Japaneseinterpersonal norms                                                                      15

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">2.<span Times New Roman"">  

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Japanese andAmerican patterns of social behavior                                      22

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The national status image                                                                              25

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">A Cultural model of interaction                                                                       27

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Seven statements about Americans                                                             31

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">3.<span Times New Roman"">  

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Factorsinfluencing values                                                                                  40

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Interculturalcommunication: a guide to men of action                                40

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Cuisine,etiquette and cultural values                                                           52

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Patterns ofspeech                                                                                          55

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">4.<span Times New Roman"">  

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">ContrastRussian’s stereotypes                                                                                  58

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Nine statementsabout Russians                                                                   58

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Middle Easterninterview responses                                                             61

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">5.<span Times New Roman"">  

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">American’s viewof Russian. Russian’s view of American                              65

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Americaninterview responses                                                                       65

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Russianinterview responses                                                                                  75

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Conclusion                                                                                                                          79

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Literature                                                                                                                   80

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Appendix

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">SUMMARY

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;text-transform: uppercase;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">A

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">diploma work contains 80 pages, 2tables, 1 figure, 4 books are a source of it.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Key words: cross-cultural communication, values, beliefs, clusters, stereotypes.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">In detail it is said about concept «values»,factors influencing values, the meaning of values in interculturalcommunication and understanding between different nations.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">In brief it is mentioned differences between

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> beliefs,values.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The actualityand novelty of a theme consist in the following points.

<span Arial CYR",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Problemsof the intercultural communications and cultural values are «young». Scientistsstarted to consider them rather recently. In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> researches have begun onlyin the 80th years. In such a way, there is not enough literature and materialson the given questions. Therefore any new works and researches make the significantcontribution to studying these problems.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»">So inmy work I tried: to research the influence of cultural values to attitude onecountry to another; to explore and to compare Japanese and American patterns ofsocial behavior; to understand the factors influencing values; to discoverstereotypes between different countries.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»">Inconclusion it is noted that

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black"> excellentknowledge of language is only half-affair for successful<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Arial CYR»;color:black"> cooperation <span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black">with other country. Also it is necessary to know features ofpeople of other country in negotiating or their attitude to business. Also itis necessary to take into account features of dialogue, etiquette, relationswith grown-ups and many other things. <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Arial CYR»;color:black"><span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">KEY WORDS

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> 

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Cross-cultural communication

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">is theinformation exchange between one person and any other source transmitting amessage displaying properties of a culture different to the one of thereceiver’s culture. The source of such a message can be either a person, in aninterpersonal communication process, or any form of mass media or other form ofmedia.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Values.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> A value is something that isimportant to people — like honesty, harmony, respect for elders, or thinking of your familyfirst. They are represents what is expected or hoped for, required orforbidden. It is not a report of actual conduct but is the inductively basedlogically ordered set of criteria of evaluations by which conduct is judged andsanctions applied.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Beliefs

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> are generallytaken to mean a mental acceptance or conviction in the truth or actuality ofsomething. A belief links an object or event and the characteristics thatdistinguish it from others. The degree to which we believe that an event orobject possesses certain characteristics reflects the level of our subjectiveprobability (belief) and, consequently, the depth or intensity of our belief.The more certain we are in a belief, the greater is the intensity of thatbelief.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Clusters

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">are groups ofinter-related industries that drive wealth creation in a region and provides aricher more meaningful representation of local industry drivers and regionaldynamics trends than traditional methods and represents the entire value chainof a broadly defined industry from suppliers to end products, includingsupporting services and specialized infrastructure.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Stereotype

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">isa fixed set of ideas about what a particular type of person or thing is like,which is (wrongly) believed to be true in all cases.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">INTRODUCTION

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»">Thesubject of my diploma work is cultural values.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Our perception of foreign cultures is usually basednot on their complex reality, but on the simplified image they project. Theclearer and more sharply defined that image is, the more convinced we will bethat we are intimately acquainted with it: it is a mere outward confirmation ofknowledge we already possess.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">All cultureshave been designed to meet universal human needs: for shelter — for love — forfriendship. While they have

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">commonalties, they have greatvariety too! Values — universal feature of culture, <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">how they might vary within and between cultures.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-font-width:104%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Oneuniversal feature of culture is values. A value is something that is importantto people — like honesty,

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-font-width:104%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">harmony,respect for elders, or thinking of your family first.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-font-width:104%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">We can't seevalues directly, but we can see them reflected in people's ordinary, day to daybehavior. What we

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-font-width:104%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">value shapeswhat we do. If respect for elders is important to me, I might listen verypatiently to grandmother's stories and not argue with her. In fact, I mightturn to her for valuable and wise advice. If I value honesty, I will <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-font-width: 104%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">hope that my friends will tell me the truth andnot what they think I want to hear. If harmony is more important <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-font-width: 104%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">to me, I prefer to say things that make peoplehappy, even if those things are not exactly true.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">In the course of human interaction, evaluations areassigned to given types of behavior, attitudes, and kinds of social contact.Taken together they form the belief and value system, the cultural premises andassumptions, and the foundation for law, order, and the world view of givencultural groups. These systems embrace a number of assumptions about how theworld is put together. Some values and norms, differentiate between good andevil, right and wrong. Some of these assumptions are made explicit in thebeliefs and myths of the people. Beliefs, value systems, and world view oftencombine with other features of social and cultural organization to provideshared cultural symbols.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Theactuality and novelty of a theme consist in the following points.

<span Arial CYR",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Problemsof the intercultural communications and cultural values are «young». Scientistsstarted to consider them rather recently. In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> researches have begun onlyin the 80th years. In such a way, there is not enough literature and materialson the given questions. Therefore any new works and researches make the significantcontribution to studying these problems.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black">Objectsof research in my diploma work are behavioral samples and cultural clusters.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»"><span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">1. DEFINITIONS: BELIEFS, VALUES

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">It is useful at this juncture to make somedistinctions between beliefs andvalues

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Arial Narrow»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-style: italic">.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Arial Narrow»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">BELIEFS

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Beliefs are generally taken to mean a mentalacceptance or conviction in the truth or actuality of something. A belief linksan object or event and the characteristics that distinguish it from others. Thedegree to which we believe that an event or object possesses certaincharacteristics reflects the level of our subjective probability (belief) and,consequently, the depth or intensity of our belief. The more certain we are ina belief, the greater is the intensity of that belief.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">This is well attested to in the power of religiousbeliefs. There are three types of beliefs, all of which are of concern to us.They are experiential, informational, and inferential. Experiential beliefscome from direct personal experience, of course; they are integrated at theintrapersonal level. The second type involves information. This is transferredon the interpersonal level and shows great cultural variation. Here culturalbeliefs are stated, transferred, learned, and practiced. Informational beliefsare connected with what are called «authority belief,» or credibleinformation sources. If a group of people believes that exercising increasesthe individual's physical and mental well-being, these believers may also bewilling to accept athletes as au­thority figures even though the testimonies ofthese idols range beyond their physical prowess. Witness the selling success ofOlympic champions and football stars in promoting breakfast food or panty hose.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Inferential beliefs are those which go beyond directobservation and informa­tion. These concern rules of logic, argumentation,rhetoric, and even establish­ment of facts (the scientific method). Althoughinternal logic systems differ from one individual to another within a culture,they differ more from one culture to another. The most dramatic difference incultural variance in thinking lies between Western and Eastern cultures. TheWestern world has a logic system built upon Aristotelian prin­ciples, and ithas evolved ways of thinking that embody these principles.... Easterncultures, however, developed before and without the benefit of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ath­ens</st1:place></st1:City> or Aristotle. As a consequence, theirlogic systems are sometimes called non-Aristotelian, and they can often lead toquite different sets of beliefs.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">VALUES

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Values bring affective force to beliefs. Some of thesevalues are shared with others of our kind some are not. Thus, we all adhere tosome of the beliefs and values generally accepted within our cultures; wereject others. Values are related to what is seen to be good, proper, andpositive, or the opposite. Values are learned and may be normative in nature.They change through time and are seldom shared in specifics by members ofdifferent generations, although certain themes will prevail. For example, thepositive attributions placed upon competitiveness, individualism, action, andother general principles that pervade the belief and value orientation ofmembers of the North American culture of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region> remain. They includethe constitutionally guaranteed and socially valued «unalienable rights tolife, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness» in individualistic,action-oriented, and competitive ways. These values have endured theirexpression varies from generation to generation.     

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">A cultural value system «represents what isexpected or hoped for, required or forbidden.» It is not a report ofactual conduct but is the inductively based logically ordered set of criteriaof evaluations by which conduct is judged and sanctions applied.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">THE VALUE / BELIEF PUZZLE

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Value and belief systems, with their supportingcultural postulates and world views, are complex and difficult to assess. Theyform an interlocking system, reflecting and reflective of cultural history andforces of change. They provide the bases for the assignment of cultural meaningand evaluation. Values are desired outcomes as well as norms for behavior; theyare dreams as well as reality, They are embraced by some and not others in acommunity; they may be the founda­tions for accepted modes of behavior, but areas frequently overridden as ob­served. They are also often the hidden forcethat sparks reactions and fuels denials. Unexamined assignment of thesecharacteristics to all members of a group is an exercise in stereotyping.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">ATTRIBUTIONSAND EVALUATIONS

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Often values attributions and evaluations of thebehaviors of «strangers» are based on the value and belief systems ofthe observers. Have you heard or made any of the following statements? Guiltyor not?

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Americans are cold.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Americans don't like their parents. Just look, theyput their mothers and fathers in nursing homes.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The Chinese are nosy. They're always asking suchpersonal questions.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Spaniards must hate animals. Look what they do tobulls!

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Marriages don't last in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Americans are very friendly. 1 met a nice couple on atour and they asked me to visit them.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Americans ask silly questions, they think we all livein tents and drink nothing but camel's milk! They ought to see our airport!

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Americans just pretend to be friendly; they reallyaren't. They say, «Drop by sometime» but when I did, they didn't seemvery happy to see me. Of course, it was <st1:time Minute=«0» Hour=«10» w:st=«on»>ten o'clock</st1:time> at night!

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">How should such statements be received? With anger?With explanation? With understanding and anger? Should one just ignore suchpatent half-truths stereotypic judgments, and oversimplifications? Beforeindulging in any of the above actions, consider what can be learned from suchstatements. First, what do these statements reveal? The speakers appear to beconcerned about families, disturbed by statistics, apt to form opinions onlimited data (friendliness), given to forming hasty and unwarrantedgeneralizations (Spanish bullfighting), and angered by the ignorance of others.No one cultural group has a corner on such behavior. Second, we might be ableto guess how certain speakers might feel about divorce, hospitality, or evenanimals. Third, the observations, while clearly not applicable to all membersof the groups about which the comments were made, represent the speakers'perceptions. To many, Americans are seenas cold and uncaring. Because perceptions and native value and belief systemsplay such important roles in communication, it is important to recognize anddeal with these perceptions-correct or incorrect, fair or unfair.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">In the following part of this chapter the concept ofvalue orientations will be explored. This will be followed by a review of themajor value orientations associated with people from the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>.These orientations will be contrasted with those of other culture groups. Suchan approach to cross-cultural variations in values and beliefs is far moreproductive than flat denial or even anger, as we form evaluative frames ofreference for ourselves and hold them up to the frames of others we shall, atthe very least, learn a great deal about ourselves.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">VALUEORIENTATIONS

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Compiling a list of cultural values, beliefs, attitudes,and assumptions would be an almost endless and quite unrewarding endeavor.Writers in the field of inter­cultural communication have generally adopted theconcept of value orientations suggested by Florence Kluckhohn and FredStrodtbeck (1961).

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">In setting forth a value orientation approach tocross-cultural variation, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961:10) pointed out thatsuch a theory was based upon three assumptions:

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">1. There are a limited number of human problems towhich all cultures must find solutions.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">2. The limited number of solutions may be chartedalong a range or Continuum of variations.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">3. Certain solutions are favored by members in anygiven culture group but all potential solutions are present in every culture.    

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">In their schema,Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck suggested that values around five universal humanproblems involving man's relationship to the environment, human nature, time,activity, and human interaction. The authors further proposed that theorientations of any society could be charted along these dimensions. Althoughvariability could be found within a group, there were always dominant orpreferred positions. Culture-specific profiles could be constructed. Suchprofiles should not be regarded as statements about individual behavior, butrather as tendencies around which social behavioral norms rules values,beliefs, and assumptions are clustered. As such, they might influenceindividual behavior as other cultural givens do; like other rules, they may bebroken, changed, or ignored.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">In the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck classification, threefocal points in the range of variations are posited for each type oforientation. In the man-to-nature contin­uum variations range from a positionof human mastery over nature, to harmony with nature, to subjugation to nature.Most industrialized societies represent the mastery orientation; theback-to-nature counterculture of young adults during the 1960s and 1970s, theharmonious stance; and many peasant populations, the sub­jugation orientation.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The time dimension offers stops at the past, present,and future. Human nature orientation is charted along a continuum stretchingfrom good to evil with some of both in the middle. The activity orientationmoves from doing to being-becoming to being. Finally, the relationalorientation ranges from the individ­ual to the group with concern with thecontinuation of the group, as an interme­diate focal point.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Value orientations only represent" goodguesses" about why people act the way they do. Statements made or scalesconstructed are only part of an «as if» game. That is to say, peopleact as if they believed in a given set of value. Because the individuals in anycultural group exhibit great variation, any of the orientations suggested mightwell be found in nearly every culture. It is the general pattern that issought. Value orientations are important to us as intercultural communicatorsbecause often whatever one believes, values, and assumes are the crucialfactors in communica­tion.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">CONTRASTIVE ORIENTATlONS

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Let us take some American cultural patterns that havebeen identified as crucial in cross-cultural communication and consider whatassumptions, values, and atti­tudes support them. Edward C. Stewart was apioneer in examining such Ameri­can behavior in a cross-cultural perspective.His book — American Cultural Patterns.This book describes dominant characteristics of middle classAmericans. Stewart distinguishesbetween cultural assumptions and values and what he called cultural norms.Cultural norms are explicit a repeatedly invoked

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Arial Narrow»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">by people todescribe or justify their actions. They represent instances in which thebehavior and the value attached to it seem at odds. Stewart writes, “Becausecultural norms are related to behavior as cliches, rituals or as culturalplatitudes, they provide inaccurate descriptions of behavior”. He points outthat Americans are devoted to the concept of self-reliance but accept socialsecu­rity, borrow money, and expect a little help from their friends. Culturebearers are usually more aware of their cultural norms than their systems ofvalues and assumptions. As Stewart explains, «being fundamental to theindividual's out­look, they [the assumptions and values] are likely to beconsidered as a part of the real world and therefore remain unquestioned».

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Table 1

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">, illustrates some of the generalvalue orientations identified with North Americans. The left-hand columnindicates what the polar point of the orientational axis might represent. TheContrast American column does not describe any particular culture, but ratherrepresents an opposite orientation. Of course, the American profile is drawn inbroad strokes and describes the mainstream culture; ethnic diversity is ofnecessity blurred in this sweeping treatment.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Thus, with the reservations noted above, it can besaid that in the relationship of human beings and nature, Americans assume andthus value and believe in doing something about environmental problems. Naturecan and should be changed. In addition, change is right and good and to beencouraged. That toe pace of change has increased to a bewildering point in the<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>at the present time presents problems, but, as yet, change has not been seen asparticularly detrimental.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Equality of opportunity is linked to individualism,lack of rigid hierarchies informality, and other cultural givens. It ismanifested in American laws regarding social conduct, privacy, and opportunity.This contrasts with an ascriptive social order in which class and birth providethe bases for social control and interaction.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The achievement orientation calls for assessment ofpersonal achievement, a latter-day Horatio Alger (Lee Iacocca) orientation. Afuture orientation is joined to the positive value accorded change and action.Directness and openness are con­trasted to a more consensus-seeking approach inwhich group harmony is placed above solving problems.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Cause-and-effect logic joined to a problem-solvingorientation and a prag­matic approach to problems defines the much-vauntedscientific method. Intuition and other approaches to evidence, fact, and«truth» are associated with being orientations and philosophicalapproaches to knowledge and knowing. Competition and a do-it-yourself approachto life are well served by a future orientation, individualism, and the desirefor change.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The statements above simply point out some verygeneral orientations

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Arial Narrow»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">that <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">have driven and, to some degree, still guide NorthAmerican society. Change is always in the air. Many have pointed out, asStewart himself does, that these orientations represent white middle classAmerican values. They do. They serve the purpose, however, of providing a frameof reference for cross-cultural comparison.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Table 2

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> offers a contrastive look at someAmerican and Japanese values.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Such culture-specific contrast alerts us to the needto examine our cultural values and assumptions from the perspective of others.As one studies the dimensions of contrast, one cannot help but marvel at thecommunication that does take place despite such diversity. Okabe, in drawingupon Japanese observations about some well-known American values, reveals a newperspective to us. For example, the bamboo whisk and octopus pot metaphorsrefer to a reaching out tendency in the United States as opposed to the drawinginward of the Japanese.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-style:italic">Omote

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">means outside and omote / uracombines both the inside and outsideworld. In the heterogeneous, egalitarian, sasara-type, doing, pushing culture of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>, there is nodistinction between the omoteandthe uraaspects of culture. In the hierarchical takotsubo-type, being, pulling culture ofJapan, a clear-cut distinction should always be made between the omoteand the uradimensions of culture, the formerbeing public, formal, and conventional, and the latter private, informal, andunconventional. The Japanese tend to conceive of the uraworld as being more real, moremeaningful.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Interpersonal relationships contrast on the basis ofthe role of the individual and group interaction. Japanese patterns are characterizedby formality and com­plementary relationships that stress the value ofdependence or amae. Amaeis the key to understanding Japanesesociety. The concept of amae underlies the Japanese emphasis on thegroup over the individual, the acceptance of constituted authority, and thestress on par­ticularistic rather than universalistic relationships. In thehomogenous, vertical society of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>the dominant value is conformity to or identity with the group. The Japaneseinsist upon the insignificance of the individual.  Symmetrical relationships focus on thesimilarities of individuals; complementary relationships exploit differences inage, sex, role and status. There are many ways in which the Japanese publiclyacknowledge a social hierarchy-in the use of language, in seating arrangementsat social gatherings, ­in bowing to one another and hundreds of others. WatchJapanese each other and the principles will become quite apparent. Notice whobows lower, who waits for the other to go first, who apologizes more: (1)younger defers to older; (2) female defers to male; (3) student defers toteacher; (4); the seller's bow is lower than the buyer's; and (6) in a schoolclub or organization where ranks are fixed, the lower ranked is, of course,subordinate. These features of interpersonal relationships lead to an emphasison the public self in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region> and on the private self in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>,Americans being more open in the demonstration of personal feelings andattitudes than the Japanese.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Let us look to this question in detail.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold">JAPANESE INTERPERSONAL NORMS

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.05pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Numerous studies by socialscientists of national character or culture

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.35pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">have appeared in recent years, initially as a response to the need forknowl<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">edge of enemy countries in World War II. Most of thesestudies have is asked a substantivequestion: what is the nature of thebehavior shared by all,or amajority, of the members of a national society? Once this shared behavior is «discovered,» its writtendescription becomes an outline of the nationalculture of that country. This approach has been extensively criti­cized on the grounds that the behavior of themembers of any complex society is sovariable that any attempt to describe the shared items results in superficial generalization. Critics have alsopointed out that descriptions ofnational cultures frequently consist of statements of norms only, and do notdenote actual behavior.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">At this point in the account ofour own research it is necessary to raise

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">questions aboutthe nature of national cultures. However, we shall not attempt to claim that our answer to these will be valid for all membersof the Japanese nation. We do claimvalidity for our own subjects and are alsowilling to guess that much of what we say will apply to the majority ofJapanese men who were socialized in prewar and wartime <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region> in families of the middle and upper income brackets.We shall not claim that our subjectsnecessarily behaved in the manner suggested, for the descrip­tion itself pertains to norms or principles andnot to behavior. In a subse­quentsection we shall provide a description and analysis of the behavior of our subjects with reference to these norms.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">This procedure implies theconcept of a «cultural model»: essentially a highly generalizeddescription of principles, shared by a large number of

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.05pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">people and maintained in the form of personal values. To some degree <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">these principles or norms constitute guides or rules for behavior: some­<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.3pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">times followed literally, sometimes not, but always available as ageneral­<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">ized protocol for use by theindividual in finding his way through social <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">relationships and in judging the acts of others.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">The first half of the model we shall construct pertains to the patternsof

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">interpersonal relations in the two societies, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>America</st1:place></st1:country-region>. We recognize that as representatives of the class ofmodern industrial nations, these two countries have cultures verysimilar in many respects. The Japanese are,in fact, often called the «Americans of the Orient,» a phrase referringto their industrious orientation toward life and nature; their interest inmass-cultural pursuits like baseball; and their success with capitalist enterprise in a collectivist world.Similarities in all these areas are a fact— but it is equally apparentthat some significant differences haveexisted in other aspects of social life in the two countries. Among thesedifferences the norms and patterns of interpersonal behavior are probably the greatest. Thus, while a Japanese andan American may share an interest inbaseball which brings them closer together that either one might be to a member of some other nation, the twomay differ so widely in their habitsof behavior in social situations that communication between them may be seriously impeded.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Studies ofJapanese social norms have revealed the following general features: articulatecodification of the norms; strongtendencies toward a face-to-face, or «primary group» type ofintimacy; an emphasis upon hierarchical status positions; concern for theimportance of status; elative permanence of status once established; and«behavioral reserve» or discipline. These will be discussed in order.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;font-variant:small-caps; letter-spacing:-.9pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">articulate codification of rules

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;font-variant:small-caps;letter-spacing: -.9pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.9pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">During the long Tokugawa period

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.05pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">of centralized feudalism, Japanese patterns of interpersonal behavior <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">underwent an elaborate institutionalization. The Shogunate attempted to <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.05pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">fix the position of each class with respect to the others andestablished <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">written rules of behavior for itsmembers. The family system had devel­<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">oped historically along patrilineallines, and during Tokugawa times such patterns of relations between kin wereproclaimed as an official social code. Afterthe Meiji Restoration, the samurai classin control of the nation maintained these formalized rules and even elevatedthem to the status of an idealizedspiritual expression of the Japanese ethos. The reason for this enhancement ofthe Tokugawa code after the Restoration lay in the need to preserve and strengthen national discipline andunity as a practical policy inindustrialization and other aspects of moderniza­tion. Thus, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>moved into her modern era in possession of a system of rules of social behavior based on feudal andfamilial principles.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">It is necessary to note thatthis system of codified rules was consistently

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.05pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">adhered to in actual behavior by only a minority of the population: the <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-bidi-font-style:italic">samurai <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">and nobility. The remainder of the population followed the rules <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">in part, or only in «public» situations where the pressure forconformity <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.05pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">was strong. In the decadessubsequent to the Restoration a generalized <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">version of the code was adopted by the developing business and official <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">classes, and this is the situation which continues to prevail in Japantoday <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">(although since the Occupation aconsiderable liberalization of social be­<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">havior can be found in all classes and groups). Since the studentsubjects <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">of-the research project werepersons from upper- and middle-class groups <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">socialized in prewar and wartime Japan, we can use the gross aspects of <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">this socialcode as a backdrop for the interpretation of their behavior. The strength and the influence of this code wereenhanced further by the fact that up to the period of the Occupation, nolarge migration to Japan of Westerners hadoccurred. In this situation relatively few Japanese were presented withthe need to learn the modes of interaction of other societies—particularly themore «open» type of the Western na­tions.This isolation was intensified during the militarist-nationalist epoch of the1930s and 1940s, in which the social code was given renewed em­phasis as a counter-measure against liberaltrends. The codified norms— on orascribed obligation; giriorcontractual obligation; chuorloyalty to one's superior; ninjoor humane sensibility; and enryoor modesty and reserve inthe presence of the superior—were incorporated in the school curriculum asethical doctrine, and exemplified in a multitude of cultural expressions.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;font-variant:small-caps;letter-spacing: -.9pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">primary associative qualities

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; font-variant:small-caps;letter-spacing:-.9pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> 

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.9pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">An importantaspect of Japanese social <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.3pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">norms may be described in Westernsociological terms as that of «primary <span Arial»,«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">association." Emphasis upon personal qualities, obligations betweensub<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">ordinate and superior, and distinctions based on age or sibling birth-order are features suited to the atmosphere of asmall, highly interactive socialgroup, like the family or a feudal manor. It goes without saying that in the modern mass society of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region> theserules have not always been observed,but the fact is that to an extraordinary degree the Japanese have succeeded in organizing present-day society intosmall, cell-like groupings, in whichhighly personalized relationships are governed by an explicit code of behavior. Even in impersonal situations,as in labor organizations, rulesof  primary associative type have beenused at least symbolically as models for interaction and responsibility.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;font-variant:small-caps;letter-spacing: -.45pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">hierarchy

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.45pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">If Japanese social norms presentan image of society in the

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">character of a primary group, itis at least a hierarchically organized pri­<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">mary group—onein which there are explicit gradations of status from superior to inferior. The family is ideally organized onpatrilineal-patriarchal principles,with the father as dominant, the eldest son superordinate to theyounger, and so on. Primogeniture was the law of the land until the Occupationperiod, and, even though no longer so, it is still followed in a great many cases.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.05pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Japanese business firms,government bureaus, and many universities

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">and schools are organized in ways reminiscent of this familial model; or<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing: -.05pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">their organization may be more closely relatedhistorically to feudal or <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">lord-vassal principles. In suchcases the employee and the employer, chief <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">and underling,or teacher and pupil occupy positions which carry with them defined and ascribed rights and duties, in which the superior gener­ally occupies a paternalistic and authoritarianrole. The term sensei means teacher,or mentor, but its wide application to people outside of the teachingprofession suggests its connotation of benevolent but stern authority and superiority. Likewise the term oyabun(«parent-status» or«parent-surrogate»), while strictly appropriate only for certaintypes of economic groups, is oftenapplied to any highly paternalistic superior.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;font-variant:small-caps;letter-spacing: -.75pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">concern for status

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.75pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">All this would imply, of course,very considerable

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">preoccupation with matters of social status. It isnecessary or at least desirable for every Japanese to know his own status inthe interaction situation, since it is in status that one finds the cues forreciprocal be­havior. To put this in sociological terms, there exists a veryclose tie between status and role: the role behavior expected of one in a givenstatus position is clearly defined andthere are relatively few permitted alternativesor variations from the pattern (when alternatives are present, they, too, are often very clearly defined). Thusthe behavior of a person of a givenstatus in a social relationship, can constitute familiar and un­mistakablecues for the appropriate behavior of a person of another status.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Concern with status is evidencedfurther by the incorporation into the

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.2pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Japaneselanguage of a multitude of forms expressing varying degrees of <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">politeness,levels of formality and respect, and subservience or domi­nance. This type of language dramatizes statusdifferences between per­sons by theuse of such devices as honorific suffixes, special verb endings, and differing pronouns. To mention only the mostcommonly used forms for designatingthe second person singular, there are anata, omae, kimi, kisama, and temai. The proper use of each of theseforms depends upon the relative status of the speaker and the particularsituation in which the conversationor interaction takes place. Status in language depends upon age, sex, and class differences, as well as on thedegree of intimacy and the extent offormal obligation existing between those communicating.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;font-variant:small-caps;letter-spacing: -.9pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">relative permanence of status

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.9pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Once status positions are clearlyde­

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing: -.15pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">fined, the parties holding these statuses areexpected to occupy them for <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">very long periods—oftenthroughout life. A superior, for example one's <span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;letter-spacing:-.25pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">professor, retains strong symbolic hierarchical precedence throughoutthe <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">life of both parties, even when the student has becomea professional equal in productivit
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