Реферат: Valentine's Day

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:purple; letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">History of Valentine's Day

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Valentine’s Day has always beenthe day dedicated to lovers. There are many stories as to how Valentine’s daystarted. Here are a few of them.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:red;letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Lupercalia

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Valentine’s Day has its originsin the Roman festival of Lupercalia, observed on Feb.15. Lupercalia celebrated the coming of Spring in theRoman calendar (February was observed later in the year than it is today). Lupercalia was associated with the Roman gods Lupercus and Faunus. Lupercus watched over shepherds and their flocks and thefestival of Lupercalia became a celebration intendedto ensure the fertility of flocks, fields and people.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">The celebration of Lupercalia transformed and spread as the Roman Empire grew.When the Romans conquered France, it was then that the first Valentine-likecards may have been exchanged. Apparently, a container in which women hadplaced their names (possibly accompanied by love notes) was used in a lottery.Men drawing a women’s name would either seek or were guaranteed that woman’s favors.

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:red; letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Saint Valentine’s Day

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">The legend of St. Valentine stemsfrom real-life martyrs from the Roman Empire known as Valentines. It is unsurewho was the St. Valentine, but there are two possible candidates. One of theseValentines is believed to have been a Roman priest and physician. He was killedin the third century, during the persecutions of the Emperor Claudius II. Afterhis death this Valentine was buried in the Roman road Via Flaminia.Pope Julius I is said to have later built a basilica above his grave. A secondSaint Valentine candidate, believed to be a bishop of Teni( a province in central Italy), was executed in Rome.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">These men’s status comes fromlegends of harboring Christians from persecution,curing the blindness of a cell keeper’s daughter, and conducting marriageswhile they were forbidden during times of war. It is this, along with thetraditions of Lupercalia, that came together to honor St. Valentine as the patron saint of lovers.

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:red; letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Eros-Cupid-Amor

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">From its association with Lupercalia, and that day’s connection to fertility, comesSt. Valentine’s association with love and romance. This led Valentine’senthusiasts to appoint the Roman god Cupid as a patron of Valentine’s day.Cupid is also known as Amor or Eros in Greekmythology. Eros seems to have been responsible for impregnating a number ofgoddesses and mortals. The ancient Greeks believed Eros was the force«love,» a force they believe was behind all creation

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;letter-spacing:1.0pt">Thereare several legends about St.Valentine’s Day. One ofthe legends says that Valentine was Christian priest who lived in the 3 centuryA.D. He was put into prison by roman authorities for his teachings and wasbeheaded on February 14. According to the legend he performed a miracle-hecured his jailer’s daughter of her blindness. Before the execution he wrote hera letter signed “From Your Valentine”. Another legend says that the sameValentine wrote to children and friends who loved him from the jail.

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">     According to another legend, Valentine wasan Italian bishop who lived at about the same time. He was thrown into prisonbecause he secretly married couples, contrary to the laws of the Roman empire.The legend says that he was burnt at the stake.

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;letter-spacing:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">     February 14 was also a Roman holiday. Onthis day young men randomly chose the name of the girl to escort to thefestival. The custom of choosing a sweetheart on this day became very popularin the medieval Europe. Later this custom spread to American colonies.


    Now, St.Valentine’s Day is the day ofsweethearts. On this day, people show their friends relatives and ones thatthey care. People send candy or flowers to those whom they love. Most peoplesend “valentines”, greeting cards named after St.Valentine’sletters written from jail. Valentines can be sentimental and romantic, or funnyand friendly. Valentines can be anonymous. Valentines can be heart-shaped orcan carry hearts on them. People buy valentines or make them themselves.

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