Реферат: Праздники России ( на английском)
Holidays of Russia.
Russian holidays it is the holidays of Russian people connected with widespread national traditions of their carrying out. For a long time already in Russia there was a set of remarkable holidays. People drove round dances, sang songs, and lived not boringly. Every day, what that — a holiday. But gradually traditions and holidays varied. In Russia there are also state holidays. As state eight national holidays, first of all, are called, are recognized non-working, holidays, namely: New Year of the first and on second of January and a Christmas on seventh of January. The international women's day on eighth of March, the Holiday of Spring and work of the first and on second of May, a Victory Day on ninth of May, Independence Day of Russia on twelfth of June, the Day of accord and reconciliation on seventh of November, the Constitution day of the Russian Federation on twelfth of December. For the state holidays, in Russia now, the combination of what remained from the previous historical periods, and new, come to a life finding by the country of the sovereignty and change of a political system is characteristic.
In Russia a great number of Russians, with hunting celebrating Christmas, prefer New Year. Winter holidays are tightened for some weeks: at first we mark the western Christmas, then New Year, then orthodox Christmas, and then old New Year. But nevertheless a favorite holiday in this long train of celebrations — New Year, mark in the night from December, 31st for January, 1st. It is the holiday most ancient and most favorite among Russians. />
The main attributes of celebrating of New Year it: a live fur-tree (the truth, in modern Russia the artificial fur-tree — because of availability and possibility of reusable use is preferred), various Christmas-tree decorations, and also obligatory gifts for favorite and close people. The main characters, it is possible to tell, heroes of a holiday are Father Frost and the Snow Maiden — without them cannot manage not only mass celebrating, but also a private congratulation that madly pleases children.
The basic dishes on a celebratory table make salads, hot, fruit (tangerines) and a considerable quantity of spirits (in particular champagne). Any New Year does not do without fireworks, Bengal fires, crackers and salutes.
In comparison with other world, Russia actively celebrates two New Year's holidays. One in the night from December, thirty first for January, first, and the second, «Old New year» on thirteenth of January that surprises foreigners got on New Year's holidays to Russia as at the majority of the countries arrival of New year means much, only change of a calendar cycle and widely it is not marked (celebrated), attaching special significance to Christmas. Now it seems to us that so was always. But the tradition of a meeting of New Year is much younger, than in the countries of Europe. New Year in Ancient Russia, as well as at many other people, began in March and merged with the pagan holiday of a pancake week marking a seeing-off of winter and a meeting of spring. In the tenth century with Christianity acceptance to Russia has come юлианскийa calendar on which year began on first of September. But only in the end of the fifteenth century this date began to be marked (celebrated) officially as the beginning of church and civil New Year. And only Peter I, carrying out calendar reform, in 1700 has established (installed) the beginning of New Year since January, 1st. The special decree Peter I demanded solemn and cheerful celebrating of this event. Moscow, therefore all celebrating was capital then passed (took place) on Red Square. However since 1704 of a celebration have been transferred (carried) to northern capital. However, in those days not feast and national гулянияwas the main thing. By January, 1st of the house of grandees and commoners were decorated by fur-tree or pine branches which needed to be dressed up not toys, as now, and fruit, vegetables, nuts and even eggs. And all products were not only an ornament, but also symbols: apples were a symbol of fertility, egg a symbol of harmony and full well-being. Since then the meeting of New Year with a green fur-tree, needles, and then with Father Frost and the Snow Maiden became on first of January traditional in our country. Old New Year is the holiday marked (celebrated) according to New Year on юлианскомуto a calendar (now in the night from 13 for January, 14th) and being, as a matter of fact, a historical echo of change of chronology. It (He) is known and popular in Russia though it is marked (celebrated) also in Serbia, Switzerland and some other countries. It (He) is marked (celebrated) in a greater degree by those who could not meet New Year on thirty first of December. And also the Russian orthodox Christians who observe from November, twenty till January, sixth the Christmas post and which to meet New year on Julian sky style more conveniently not to break instructions of the Christmas post.
Since 1991 as the state holiday the Christmas marked in Russia on seventh of January has been restored. The announcement of an orthodox religious holiday a day off in such multinational country as Russia has demanded the flexible mechanism of the account of national and religious traditions of all people. Every time when we step over a threshold of New Year, on a shower it becomes especially warm, because in some days there will come the Christmas Holiday! A Christmas — surprising time when heart is filled with miracle expectation… And this miracle occurs! «The Christ is born, glorify! » — Rushes over the Universe, — «the Christ from heavens, meet! » — All world sings of glory of the Creator. Angelic forces and mankind — together glorify what love has no borders. And, probably, therefore a Christmas name «Winter Easter». Each of us tries to spend this day not how any another: to present good and love to the loved one, to become better, and the most important thing — is closer to God. On January, 6th at 12 o'clock in the morning solemn divine service in orthodox temples begins. And on January, 7th it is accepted to congratulate friends and native on this light holiday. Unlike Europeans who aspire to note Christmas in the bosom of the family, and even doors close, in Russia it is accepted to hold doors opened that all who wishes to celebrate Christmas came, to share celebratory pleasure. Christmas eve has received the name «Christmas Eve», and a word it occurs from the ritual food tasted this day – сочива, porridges from red wheat or barley, a rye, гречихи, mixed with honey and with almond and маковымjuice.
/>The food in Christmas Eve could not be accepted to the first star, in memory of the Bethlehem star, announced to magicians about Christmas of the Savior. And with approach of twilight when the first star lighted up, sat down a table and shared облатками, wishing each other all kind and light.
Christmas — a holiday when all family together gathers behind the big table. The table prepared the plentiful. Pancakes, fish dishes, aspic, студеньfrom pork and beef legs. A fragrant dairy pig with a stuffing from porridge, a pork head with a horse-radish, pork sausage house, roast, honey spice-cakes, сбитеньand, of course, a fried goose.
Christmas-tide begins with Christmas – continuous holidays which last before Kreshchensky Christmas Eve and are accompanied by walks, visiting native and friends, masquerades. In olden time it was accepted колядовать.
The sparrow flies, by a tail twirls. And you, people, know tables dim.
On the Christmas-tide in Russia it was from time immemorial accepted рядиться, to arrange cheerful games, to go on houses, to awake sleeping, to congratulate all passers on sun turn for the summer, and later, after Christianity acceptance, with Christmas, to joke, sing songs. Came to an end колядкиwith a general fun, driving from hills, the general feast.
Svjatochnye guessing is various and numerous. Girls, sometimes under the direction of the senior women were engaged in them. Whether and interested them they, first of all, will marry next year or remain in girls will be rich or poor, in general, will be live or will die. Therefore very many guessing связанныwith searches of the promised.
After Celebrating of New year, the Christmas will come to Russia. Remains to very few times to meet a holiday according to Russian traditions, cheerfully and hospitably.
Christening of Gospodne (Sacred Epiphany)
On January, 19th Russians celebrate Kreshchenie Gospodne. In memory that this day Jesus Christ has accepted a christening in the river Jordan, in orthodox temples water which parishioners store then the whole year is consecrated. From temples to cross-shaped ice-holes pass religious processions. Believers plunge into ice-holes, symbolizing it a christening ceremony. Besides, it is considered that bathing for the Christening helps to recover from various illnesses. An Epiphany — one of twelve basic (great) orthodox holidays.
Day of students (Tatjanin day)
On twenty fifth of January Russians celebrate Day of the student or Tatiana day. The decree empress Elizabeth Petrovnoj January, twelfth, 1755 on Tatiana day has signed the decree «About establishment of the Moscow university». Since then on twelfth of January students celebrate the holiday – Day of students and sacred Tatyana became the patroness of all students. In the nineteenth century since January, twelfth a student's vacation began. This day it was accepted to arrange celebrations on which awards under solemn speeches were distributed. Then it is day named not Tatiana day, and «Day of the basis of the Moscow University». Celebrated Day of the student in the beginning only in Moscow. Гулянияpassed very magnificently and consisted of two parts. At first there was an official part, and then the holiday passed to streets in which all inhabitants of capital took participation. Nicolay’s decree of the first had been signed the certificate about university establishment, instead of its opening. Thanks to its students had a holiday – Day of the student. Day of the student – celebrate and now. It put modern youth celebrates also it is noisy and it is cheerful, as hundred years ago. The poor student never will miss the chance to shirk study, but according to popular wisdom, from its infinite celebration distracts only time.
Day sacred Valentine (Valentine day)
/>Love! When both sad and funny.
Love! When do not like, anyway.
Love! Although not the favorite name.
Love! Love thy will understand.
Love! His heart command.
Love! His love of expensive.
Love! When the terms of good and evil.
Love! And should not it be otherwise!
On fourteenth of February — an especial holiday. It is known as Valentine’s Day — a holiday of all enamored. It is one of few foreign holidays whom it is successful at us has got accustomed and every year becomes more and more mass. It is possible to consider it joint — both men, and female. It can celebrate at any age, after all the love does not have borders. Loving couples mark this romantic holiday all over the world. As it is known, the name to this holiday was given by simple Christian priest Valentine who secretly crowned enamored legionaries, for what has been executed.
As the Christian martyr priest Valentine for the belief has been canonized by church. In 496 year on fourteenth of February by the Pope has been declared in the Afternoon of sacred Valentine. In Russia and the CIS countries Day of sacred Valentine is marked from the beginning of the ninetieth years of the twentieth century.
On February, 23rd Day of the defender of fatherland
On twenty third of February in Russia it is accepted to congratulate men on Day of the defender of Fatherland (the holiday was marked for the first time at the time of Soviet Union and it is marked now in Russia, in Ukraine, in Belarus and Dnestr region). This day we pay a tribute of respect and thanks to those who courageously protected the native earth from aggressors, and also that who in a peace time draws hard and responsible duty. Informally the holiday is considered day of men which accept congratulations since February, twenty third not only from an opposite sex, but also from friends and colleagues. For the first time the holiday was marked in 1922 and «Day of Red army» was called. With 1946 on 1993 it was called «Day of the Soviet Army and Navy fleet». For today on twenty third of February according to the Federal law of the Russian Federation «About days of military glory (victorious days) Russia» (1995) is called as Day of the defender of Fatherland. In 2002 the State Duma of the Russian Federation has made decision to make on twenty third of February the day off.
Pancake week — one of the most joyful and light holidays. The whole week the people see off the bothered winter, bake pancakes and visit. A pancake week for us, as a carnival for Italians. As in a translation from Italian «carnival» is meant «by beef, farewell! ». And the pancake week previous the Lent, long since was called as «Mjasopustom» as this week it was forbidden to eat meat. Some historians consider that in the ancient time the Pancake week was связаннаwith day of a spring solstice, but with acceptance of Christianity it began to anticipate the Lent and to depend on its terms. On every day buttered week there were certain ceremonies. On Monday – the Pancake week meeting, on Tuesday — folk tunes. On the gourmand that is on Wednesday of buttered week the mother-in-law invited to pancakes of sons-in-law with wives. Especially this custom was observed concerning young, recently got married. For certain from here expression «to the mother-in-law on pancakes» also has gone. On wide Thursday there were the most crowded санныеdriving. On Friday — mother-in-law's вечерки — sons-in-law called the mother-in-law on an entertainment. Saturday was taken away золовкинымto a sit-round gathering. Sunday was called «прощенымin the afternoon». This day all visited relatives, friends and acquaintances, exchanged kisses, bows and were sorry each other if have offended words or acts.
Women's day 8 Martha
On eighth of March — «the International women's day», a holiday of spring and attention to the woman. This day we do not work, and ours «fine halves» wait from us for signs on attention, colours and gifts. We rejoice to a holiday. Passes time, the sense of a holiday varies, and we sometimes wonder: what, actually, and what for we celebrate? The beginning to the International women's day which today mark donation of gifts, colours and poetic посвящениямиto women, was put not less by the celebrated personality — Clara Tsetkin. The beginning of celebrating of the International women's day in day on March, 8th has begun since 1911. For the first time the holiday to women, has been celebrated in Germany, Austria, Denmark, and Sweden. Russia has joined this list since 1913. As a result of activity of the International female organisation for protection of the rights of women, in 1985 in 88 countries of the world recognised the right of women and have stopped fair sex discrimination in the decision of political and other questions. The international women's day has been celebrated for the first time in Russia – in Petersburg in 1913 In May, 1965 on March, 8th has been declared by a day off. In the USSR and new Russia the holiday 8 Martha was and remains to one of the most favourite.
Day of laughter
Custom to have fun and deceive each other on first of April exists in many countries. «Day of laughter» or «Day дурашка» — so call this holiday and mark it in spite of the fact that it is not brought in one official calendar of significant events. In Russia, according to historians and ethnographers, celebrating on first of April — an echo of pagan rite in honour of arrival of spring. Being afraid of «old woman-winter», wishing it to banish more likely, our ancestors changed clothes in skins of animals, put on masks that she has not learnt offenders, with songs and dancings burnt its stuffed animal and met the beauty-spring. Besides, in Russia considered that the malicious demon on first of April wakes up, and consequently it is necessary to deceive in every possible way each other to confuse him.
Well and the first case of mass draw has taken place in Moscow at the time of Peter I. In 1700 the holder of troupe of German comedians declared that during representation will get into an ordinary bottle. To the people at theatre has gathered much, and on a stage have taken out a bottle with an inscription «on First of April». Speak, for the most dull people the German has some times put a finger in a bottle to show that it has made a fool of them: see supposedly even my finger in a bottle does not climb, and I and will not climb through for a long time. In Russia the morning April Fools' alarm sounding usually in case of a fire became ridiculous draw and having roused all Petersburgers who have soon understood that became victims of draw. Still couple of years back Russians in large quantities took a great interest in jokes, like: «At you a back white!» Or «at you laces were untied!» Some come across till now on these old kind draws.
Easter Christ'sChrist Voskresi!Truly Voskresi!
Light Christ's Revival has come to Russia — the most important orthodox holiday. This day special and familiar to us since the childhood. We learn it on brightly painted chicken яичкам, on is tasty to the smelling Easter cakes covered with a multi-coloured crumb on white glaze and on special joyful persons of people, coming back of a temple. Orthodox such holiday consider as the most important thing and name a holiday of holidays — Easter. Orthodox Easter in Russia is marked on the first Sunday after a spring equinox and a March full moon. Easter still name a life holiday, and even inveterate atheists are reserved by an onions peel for a paint of eggs and with pleasure knead celebratory Easter cakes. Easter — a holiday, drawing the beauty and improbable atmosphere of all: big and small, believing and doubting. A church celebration of the most important holiday of the orthodox people really grandiosely. And preparation for celebrating begins beforehand. On Saturday believers bear Easter cakes in church, eggs and Easter for consecration without which the Easter cake remains simply rich bread, and egg — will lose the symbolical value. By the way, many people on ignorance name the baked Easter cakes which are on sale on the eve of a holiday in many shops — Easter. Not to get to awkward position it is necessary to know that Easter is a dish from cottage cheese with every possible additives. It unlike Easter cakes is not baked.
Divine service in a temple begins with canon and religious procession reading. In churches time has begun divine services can be various. In the main temple of Volgograd the Kazan cathedral canon reading begins, approximately at 23.15 — 23.30. The people coming in the night from Saturday to Sunday in a temple on Easter divine service, become witnesses of the sacred action not similar on any others. Before its beginning in temples all fixtures are lighted, believing stand with candles, and there is no more brightly and more joyfully a service, than in night of Revival of Jesus Christ.
In days of old solemn Divine service was made in the presence of the tsar who upon termination of a ceremony did not shun христосоваться with boyars and court. Христосоваться it is accepted not only in day of Easter, but also the next days. Meeting people should kiss and exchange by all means red яичками. Before it it is necessary to say: «Christ Voskresi!». Or to answer: «Truly Voskresi!». After all Easter is a holiday of Revival of the Christ. Such greetings people announce a victory of a life eternal over death. Under the legend Maria Magdalina has presented the first Easter egg to the Roman emperor Tiberiju. It has come to Rome with a great joyful message about Revival of the Christ. Maria was poor and, without having anything, except the belief, joyfully having exclaimed: «Christ Voskresi!», has presented to the emperor a usual egg. Тиберий was sceptical about words of the woman, having doubted that someone can revive from the dead.« Also it is difficult to believe in it, as that this egg can become red! »- the emperor has told and has not believed to the eyes: egg in his hands wonderfully became scarlet. Since then traditional red Easter eggs symbolise blood of the Christ and are the Revival symbol. For children Easter eggs a wonderful entertainment and an occasion to play pranks. Games on разбивание eggs and their driving carry away all children, looking on which adults rejoice.
The pleasure distinguishes Easter from all other holidays. Not that pleasure that that pleasure is received from fair quantity of strong drinks in a New Year's eve, not that comes with reception of expensively gift at date of enamoured, and pleasure of that a life is fine that it does not come to an end that it proceeds eternally. Easter — a life holiday! A holiday when «the soul Russian as though is dissolved and softened in warm beams of Christ's love», reviving for good deeds and light thoughts.
Holiday of spring and work
On first of May it was celebrated in the Russian empire for the first time in 1890 in Warsaw, and in 1891 already in capital — in St.-Petersburg.
Its first name — Day of the international solidarity of workers. In Soviet Union a holiday often named simply on number – on first of May.
In the Russian Federation it is marked, as a holiday of Spring and Work.
As though it named – Day of solidarity of workers or a holiday of spring and work, for many on first of May traditionally symbolizes revival and arrival of spring.
The big emotional charge which it bears in itself (himself) is connected not only with sensation of spring awakening of the nature, but also with perception on first of May as the general celebration rallying all Russians. «A mass holiday» on first of May became in the USSR. And it really was the holiday for the workers who have received in addition two days off. May гулянияpassed on all country. This day people amicably went on demonstration with headers and colours. The celebratory table was obligatory attribute of the 1st of May.
On May, 9th — a Victory Day!
On May, 9th, 1945 Russian people have gained a great victory over the aggressor. The tests, fallen to a lot of our people were rather fiery.
Here half a century a Victory Day already there is more serves as a strong, indissoluble thread between us, present generation, and generation of front-line soldiers, military workers, winners. The Victory Day is a proof of that Russians — special, surprisingly strong nation. And however many has passed years and how many the words full thanks and love, has not sounded, the young generation always will be in eternal to a debt to veterans.
In 2005 60 years of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War were executed. The basic celebratory actions devoted to this date, have taken place 8 — on May, 10th in Moscow. The capital of Russia has accepted tens foreign delegations from all continents led by heads of the states and the governments. In the Russian regions 9-og May marked the Victory 60 anniversary in the Great Patriotic War. On celebrations on the occasion of an anniversary informs ITAR-TASS.
Ten thousand inhabitants of Kursk have come today to a memorial fallen in days of the Great Patriotic War to pay a tribute of memory to heroes and to assign flowers to their tombs. So populous celebrations in a Victory Day many years here were not observed. On Red Square of Kursk military parade and solemn meeting has taken place.
On a main square of Samara — the areas of Kuibyshev — today for the first time for last 4 years there has passed military parade. It was opened by 120 veterans of the Great Patriotic War. Dressed in the field form and groundsheets they have solemnly passed on the area on реставрированныхtrucks of wartime ГАЗ-67. After them a smart march have passed one and a half thousand military men of the Second Guards army deployed in territory of the Samara region.
Aerobatic manoeuvres in the sky over a city were shown by pilots of country council РОСТО. All interested persons by tradition treated with soldier's porridge.
Ten thousand калининградцевhave come today to a sacred place for all — to a memorial to 1200 heroes-guardsmen — to pay a memory tribute to the Soviet soldiers who were lost in days of the Great Patriotic War.
It is the first memorial, erected in Soviet Union in honour of the fallen heroes upon termination of war. It has immortalised a feat of the Red Army men who were lost at storm of a fortified city of Kenigsberg is equal a month before the Great Victory. On the eve of a holiday reconstruction of a memorial to which in September 60 years will be executed has been finished.
Veterans of war have headed a smart system of armies of the Kaliningrad garrison. They bore banners of 1st Baltic, 2nd and 3rd Belarus fronts, and also the Baltic fleet, Soviet armies participating in East Prussian offensive operation and storm of Kenigsberga.
Celebratory celebrations have passed in Tver — the first regional centre, released from fascist aggressors.
Thousand townspeople, despite a rain, have passed in colourful columns the central city streets. When meeting has begun and greetings to veterans have begun to sound, the rain has stopped, the sun has looked out.
«Words of a congratulation to front-line soldiers, workers of back in an especial way sound on our Tver earth. In frosty December of 41st Kalininsky offensive operation has begun. It was a component of the plan of defeat of fascist armies near Moscow», — the mayor of Tver Oleg Lebedev has told on meeting. It has reminded that Kalinin (Tver) became the first regional centre released from fascist aggressors.
The enemy has had here the big losses — more than 10 thousand killed and wounded men.
With solemn поминальныхceremonies on military burial places celebrating of the 60 anniversary of the Great Victory in Arkhangelsk has begun today. Thousand people почтилиmemory fallen also have assigned flowers to their tombs. In territory of the front Arkhangelsk region 31 military hospitals on 16 thousand cots has been developed. Hundreds fighters have died here of wounds and illnesses.
After all ceremonies and возложенийcolours, people disperse. In the evening at ten o'clock start to give salute in honour of a Victory Day. People leave on streets and admire on beautiful fireworks.
Day of mother (Mum's day) in Russia
In Russia to mark «Day of mother» became rather recently. Though it is impossible to argue that this holiday — an eternity holiday: from generation to generation for each person mum – the most important person in a life. Becoming mother, the woman opens in itself better qualities: kindness, love and care. The new holiday – «Day of Mother» — gradually gets accustomed in Russia. Based by the President of the Russian Federation on January, 30th, 1998, it is celebrated last Sunday November, doing justice to parent work and their disinterested victim for the sake of the blessing of children. And it is correct: how many good, kind words it has been told to mums, how many occasions for this purpose have thought up, superfluous they will not be. Among the numerous holidays marked in our country, «Day of Mother» takes a special place. It is a holiday to which nobody can remain indifferent. This day it would be desirable to tell gratitude words to all Mothers who give to children love, good, tenderness and caress. Thanks you!.. And let to each of you tell warm words your favourite children more! Let on their persons the smile and joyful sparkles is shone sparkle in eyes, when you together! The Russian mothers were distinguished always by generosity of soul, fidelity, self-sacrifice, love and great patience. And today they carefully store the family centre, learn children to good, mutual understanding, morals. Day of mother answers the best traditions of the relation of Russians to motherhood, unites all layers of the Russian society on ideas of good and honouring of the woman-mother.
Day of mother — a holiday youngish. It yet has no established traditions, in the family circle very few people marks it. But, we hope that in due course value of this day will increase, because on sense and the maintenance it is the most sacred holiday.