Реферат: University of Cambridge


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Выполнил: студент группы МСС-126 Ошурко В. Д.






Волгоград, 2010 г.

University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University, or simply Cambridge) is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second oldest university in both England and the English-speaking world and the seventh oldest university globally. In post-nominals the university's name is abbreviated as Cantab, a shortened form of Cantabrigiensis (an adjective derived fromCantabrigia, the Latinised form of Cambridge).

The university grew out of an association of scholars in the city of Cambridge that was formed, early records suggest, in 1209 by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk. The two «ancient universities» have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of British society, the two universities have a long history of rivalry with each other.

Academically, Cambridge ranks as one of the world's top universities, as well as a leading university in Europe, and contends with Oxford for first place in UK league tables. Affiliates of the University have won more Nobel Prizes than those of any other institution in the world  — with 88 Nobel Laureates as of October 4, 2010 — the most recent one being Robert G. Edwards for the prize in physiology or medicine. The University is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group, the League of European Research Universities and the International Alliance of Research Universities. It forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.


Cambridge’s status was enhanced by a charter in 1231 from King Henry III of England which awarded the ius non trahi extra (a right to discipline its own members) plus some exemption from taxes, and a bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX that gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach everywhere in Christendom.

After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter by Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, and confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to come and visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses.



Cambridge is a collegiate university, meaning that it is made up of self-governing and independent colleges, each with its own property and income. Most colleges bring together academics and students from a broad range of disciplines, and within each faculty, school or department within the university, academics from many different colleges will be found.

The faculties are responsible for ensuring that lectures are given, arranging seminars, performing research and determining the syllabi for teaching, overseen by the General Board. Together with the central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor, they make up the entire Cambridge University. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the University (the Cambridge University Library), by the departments (departmental libraries such as the Squire Law Library), and by the individual colleges (all of which maintain a multi-discipline library, generally aimed mainly at their undergraduates).




All students and many of the academics are attached to colleges, where they socialise. It is also the place where students may receive their small group teaching sessions, known as supervisions. Each college appoints its own teaching staff and fellows in each subject; decides which students to admit, in accordance with university regulations; provides small group teaching sessions, for undergraduates (though lectures are arranged and degrees are awarded by the university); and is responsible for the domestic arrangements and welfare of its own undergraduates, graduates, post-doctoral researchers, and staff in general.

The University of Cambridge currently has 31 colleges, of which three, Murray Edwards, Newnham and Lucy Cavendish, admit women only. The other colleges are now mixed, though most were originally all-male. Darwin was the first college to admit both men and women, while Churchill, Clare and King's colleges were the first previously all-male colleges to admit female undergraduates in 1972. Magdalene was the last all-male college to become mixed in 1988. Clare Hall and Darwin admit only postgraduates, and Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund’s and Wolfson admit onlymature (i.e. 21 years or older on date of matriculation) students, including graduate students. All other colleges admit both undergraduate and postgraduate students with no age restrictions. Colleges are not required to admit students in all subjects, with some colleges choosing not to offer subjects such as architecture, history of art or theology, but most offer close to the complete range. Some colleges maintain a bias towards certain subjects, for example with Churchill leaning towards the sciences and engineering, while others such as St Catharine's aim for a balanced intake. Costs to students (accommodation and food prices) vary considerably from college to college. Others maintain much more informal reputations, such as for the students of King's College to hold left-wing political views, or Robinson College and Churchill College's attempts to minimise its environmental impact.

There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, including Westcott House, Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College, that are affiliated to the university and are members of the Cambridge Theological Federation.



The principal method of teaching at Cambridge colleges is the supervision. These are typically weekly hour-long sessions in which small groups of students – usually between one and three – meet with a member of the university's teaching staff or a doctoral student. Students are normally required to complete an essay or assignment in advance of the supervision, which they will discuss with the supervisor during the session, along with any concerns or difficulties they have had with the material presented in that week's lectures. Lectures at Cambridge are often described as being almost a mere 'bolt-on' to these supervisions. Students receive between one and three supervisions per week, depending upon their subject. This pedagogical system is often cited as being unique to Cambridge and Oxford (where “supervisions” are known as “tutorials”)

The concept of grading students' work quantitatively was developed by a tutor named William Farish at the University of Cambridge in 1792.


Schools, faculties and departments

In addition to the 31 colleges, the university is made up of over 150 departments, faculties, schools, syndicates and other institutions. Members of these are usually also members of one or more of the colleges and responsibility for running the entire academic programme of the university is divided amongst them.

A 'School' in the University of Cambridge is a broad administrative grouping of related faculties and other units. Each has an elected supervisory body – the 'Council' of the school – comprising representatives of the constituent bodies. There are six schools:

Arts and Humanities

Biological Sciences

Clinical Medicine

Humanities and Social Sciences

Physical Sciences


Teaching and research in Cambridge is organised by faculties. The faculties have different organisational sub-structures which partly reflect their history and partly their operational needs, which may include a number of departments and other institutions. In addition, a small number of bodies entitled 'Syndicates' have responsibilities for teaching and research, e.g. Cambridge Assessment, the University Press, and the University Library.


Academic year

The academic year is divided into three terms, determined by the Statutes of the University. Michaelmas Term lasts from October to December; Lent Term from January to March; and Easter Term from April to June.

Within these terms undergraduate teaching takes place within eight-week periods called Full Terms. These terms are shorter than those of many other British universities. Undergraduates are also expected to prepare heavily in the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations).

Student life


Cambridge maintains a long tradition of student participation in sport and recreation. Rowing is a particularly popular sport at Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges, notably the bumps races, and against Oxford, the Boat Race. There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from cricket and rugby, to chess and tiddlywinks. Athletes representing the university in certain sports entitle them to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of the Blues Committee, consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports.






Кембриджский университет

Кембриджский университет (неофициально Кембридж) является государственным университетом исследования расположенного в Кембридже, Великобритания. Он является вторым старейшим университетом Англии и седьмым старейшим университетом в мире. В пост-номиналах название университета называется сокращенно Кантаб, сокращенная форма от Cantabrigiensis.
Университет создан ассоциацей ученых в городе Кембридж, который был создан в 1209 (как говорят ранние записи) году, учеными Оксфордского университета, которые ушли из него после спора с горожанами. Два «древних университетов» имеют много общих черт и часто совместно именуемые Oxbridge. В дополнение культурным и практическим объединением, исторической части британского общества, два университета имеют давнюю историю соперничества друг с другом.
В учебе, Кембридж считается одним из лучших университетов мира, а также ведущим университетом в Европе, и занимает, с Оксфордским первое место в Великобритании. Филиалы университета выиграли больше Нобелевских премий, чем любой другой институт в мире — 88 лауреатов Нобелевской премии по состоянию на 4 октября 2010 года — последней из которых Роберт Дж. Эдвардс — премия по физиологии и медицине. Университет является членом Russell Group исследований под руководством британских университетов, CoimbraGroupЛиги европейских исследовательских университетов и Международный альянс исследовательских университетов. Он является частью «Золотого треугольника» британских университетов.


Статус Кембриджа был установлен уставом в 1231 году королём Генрихом III из Англии, который получил IUS, право на дисциплину своих членов, а также некоторое освобождение от налогов, и быка в 1233 году от папы Григория IX, который дал выпускникам Кембриджа право преподавать повсюду в христианском мире.


Кембридж является коллегиальным университетом, означает, что он состоит из самоуправляющихся и независимых колледжей, каждый со своим собственным имуществом и доходами. 
Факультеты несут ответственность за обеспечение того, чтобы читались лекции, организовывались семинары, проводились исследования и определения учебных программ для обучения, под контролем Генерального совета.Такие объекты, как библиотеки предоставляются на всех этих уровнях: от университета (Cambridge University Library), в отделы (ведомственных библиотек, таких как Сквайр Юридическая библиотека), и отдельных колледжей .


Все студенты и многие из ученых приезжают в колледжи, где они общаются. Это место, где студенты объединяются в малые группы для учение сессии. Каждый колледж назначает свой персонал и обучение стипендиатов по каждому предмету, решает, какие студенты будут признаны, в соответствии с университетскими правилами; обеспечивает небольшой группе обучения сессий для студентов, а также несет ответственность за внутренние механизмы и благосостояние своих собственных студентов, выпускников, после защиты докторской исследователей, и сотрудников в целом.
Кембриджский университет в настоящее время имеет 31 колледжей, из которых три, Мюррей Эдвардс, Ньюнхем и Люси Кавендиш, допускают только женщины. Другие колледжи смешаны, хотя большинство из них изначально для мужчин. Дарвин был первый колледж в котором учились мужчины и женщины, в то время Черчилль, Клэр были первыми мужскими колледжами, но  признали женщин студентов в 1972 году. Магдалина был последний мужской  колледж, и стал смешанным в 1988 году. В Клэр Холл и Дарвин допускаются только аспиранты, и Хьюз Холл, Люси Кавендиш, Сан

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