Реферат: A Comparison Contrast Of 1984 And A
A Comparison Contrast Of 1984 And A Brave New World Essay, Research Paper
A Comparison Contrast of A Brave New World and 1984
Although many similarities exist between Aldous Huxley’s A Brave New World and George Orwell’s 1984, the works books though they deal with similar topics, are more dissimilar than alike. A Brave New World is a novel about the struggle of Bernard Marx, who rejects the tenants of his society when he discovers that he is not truly happy. 1984 is the story of Winston who finds forbidden love within the hypocrisy of his society. In both cases, the main character is in quiet rebellion against his government which is eventually found to be in vain.
Huxley wrote A Brave New World in the third person so that the reader could be allotted a more comprehensive view of the activities he presents. His characters are shallow and cartoon-like (Astrachan) in order to better reflect the society in which they are entrapped. In this society traditional notions of love and what ideally should come out of it have long been disregarded and are now despised, “Mother, monogamy, romance. High spurts the fountain; fierce and foamy the wild jet. The urge has but a single outlet.” (Huxley 41) The comparison to a wild jet is intended to demonstrate the inherent dangers in these activities. Many of the Brave New World’s social norms are intended to ’save’ its citizens from anything unpleasant through depriving them of the opportunity to miss anything overly pleasant.
The society values, ACOMMUNITY, IDENTITY, STABILITY,” (Huxley 1) supersede all else in a collective effort. Soma, the magical ultimate drug is what keeps the population from revolting. “What you need is a gramme of soma… All the advantages of Christianity and alcohol; none of their defects.” The drug is at the forefront of their daily lives providing freedom from life’s every ill. “The word comes from the Sanskrit language of ancient India. It means both an intoxicating drink used in the old Vedic religious rituals there and the plant from whose juice the drink was made- a plant whose true identity we don’t know.” (Astrachan) The drug is used as a form of recreation, like sex, and its use is encouraged at any opportunity, especially when great emotions begin to arise.
They are conditioned to accept this to calm and pacify them should they begin to feel anything too intensely. The conditioning also provides them with their place and prevents them from participating in social activities which they needn’t take part in. (Smith) Class consciousness which Americans are so reluctant to acknowledge is taught through hypnop dia (the repetition of phrases during sleep akin to post hypnotic suggestion) for all social classes:
These names are letters in the Greek alphabet, familiar to Huxley’s original English readers because in English schools they are used as grades- like our As, Bs, etc.- with Alpha plus the best and Epsilon minus the worst. In Brave New World, each names a class or caste. Alphas and Betas remain individuals; only Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons are bokanovskified. (Astrachan)
The conditioning is begun at an extremely young age and is by modern real-world standards cruel, AThe screaming of the babies suddenly changed its tone. There was something desperate, almost insane, about the sharp spasmodic yelps to which they now gave utterance.” (Huxley 20) The children’s “Pavlovian” conditioning with electric shocks is later compared to the wax seals which used to grace the seams of letters (Astrachan), “Not so much like drops of water, though water, it is true, can wear holes in the hardest granite; rather, drops of liquid sealing-wax, drops that adhere, incrust, incorporate themselves with what they fall on, till finally the rock is all one scarlet blob.” The entire society is conditioned to shrink away from intense emotion, engage in casual sex, and take their pacifying Soma.
In 1984, a first-person book partly narrated by the main character’s internal dialogue, the great party leader is “Big Brother,” a fictional character who is somewhat more imposing than “Ford,” of Huxley’s book, named after the industrialist Henry Ford (Astrachan). The main character Winston fears Big Brother and is much more aware of his situation than any of the characters in A Brave New World who are constantly pacified by soma. In A Brave New World history is ignored completely whereas in 1984 it is literally rewritten in order to suit the present.
The role of science in both books is extensive and complicated. 1984’s telescreens cannot be turned off, as A Brave New World has “feelies,” an advancement on “talkies” which added sound, “feelies” add tactile senses to a movie as well. Science and human progress is not acknowledged in A Brave New World (Smith) excepting when it increases consumption, whereas it is twisted with ironic titles in 1984, “They were homes of the four Ministries between which the entire apparatus of government was divided: the Ministry of Truth, which concerned itself with news, entertainment, education, and the fine arts; the Ministry of Peace, which concerned itself with war; the Ministry of Love, which maintained law and order; and the Ministry of Plenty, which was responsible for economic affairs. Their names in Newspeak: Minitrue, Minipax, Miniluv, and Miniplenty.” (Orwell 8) The God (Ford) of A Brave New World encourages production and consumption of shallow objects to complement the shallow minds of its citizens.
1984 was written as a warning against the results of having a totalitarian state. Winston bears the blunt of his mistakes, the crime of individuality and dissention. A Brave New World is as much a satire on the reality of today (the reality of Huxley’s day) as it is a novel about the future. ANeil Postman …warned Awhen a population becomes distracted by trivia, when cultural life is defined a s a perpetual round of entertainments, when serious public conversation becomes a form of baby talk, a people become an audience and their public business a vaudeville act, then a nation finds itself at risk; cultural death is a clear possibility.(Kruk) Huxley seems to feel that society is progressing toward a materialistic and superficial end, in which all things of real value, including the relationships which make people human, will be quashed.
The two works vary greatly, A Brave New World is the Huxley’s expression of fear that mankind will create a utopia by way of foregoing all that makes life worthwhile. Orwell’s work rings more sharply of secret police paranoia. Indeed, Winston is taken to room 101, while Bernard is merely transferred to an uncomfortable location. The hypocrisy is much more evident within A Brave New World as well, owing to the controller’s having had a son. Both books forewarn of a day when humankind might fall slave to its own concept of how others should act.
The two books ask not whether societies with stability, pacification, and uniformity can be created, but whether or not they are worth creating. It is so often that one wants something and in wanting romanticizes it, thus bringing disappointment when the end is finally obtained. They serve as a reminder that it is necessary to have pain to compare with joy, defeat to compare with victory, and problems in order to have solutions. Both books end on negative notes; Bernard is exiled to work in Iceland and Winston is subjected to psychological treatment and then killed.
Books related to 1984 3
From the very beginning Winston and Bernard make
them enemies of their society. These characters risk their
lives to try and recapture what we take for granted today.
Winston and Bernard try to keep their individuality and
recapture through their jobs, and the way they live. Both
1984 and Brave new World show us that we must be
careful to protect our ideas and way of life. Through the two
main characters, Winston and Bernard, the authors show the
readers that once tyranny takes hold reality and individuality
are lost. Winston attempts to keep in his individuality through
the apartment he rents. The apartment, which was rented
from the owner of the antique store, is one way he makes
himself different. The antique store owner could sense how
Winston was different from the others, and he showed that
when he said, There s another room upstairs that you might
care to take a look at. (81) Winston is instantly charmed by
the rooms nostalgic look and furnishing.! At first it was, a
wild, impossible notion, to be abandoned as soon as though
of. (82) One thing that leads to him later renting the
apartment is the fact that their is no visible telescreen. The
owner told Winston the he never had one because, Too
expensive. And I never seemed to feel the need of it
somehow. (82) In truth their was a telescreen behind the
etching, which leads to the capture of Winston and Julia. The
apartment was a huge symbol of the past to Winston. The
apartment is decorated with relics of the past: a double bed,
a metal etching of a church, a bookshelf filled with ancient
tomes. Winston and Julia use these items as constant
reminders of the past they are longing for. They believe that
they can safely enter this world, separate from the one of the
Party and Big Brother. In their mind it is a safe haven, in
reality it is a rat, pest and filth ridden slum. It is not even safe
from the Party. As it turns out there was a telescreen in the
apart! ment. It was hidden behind the etching of the church,
that Winston thought was so nostalgic. In the end Winston
and Julia could not control their own lives, just like society
where no one has a control. Bernard didn t have a nostalgic
apartment, what he had was a way of life contrary to others.
No one in his world wanted to worry about anything. They
would drown their worries in the pleasure drug Soma. What
Bernard would do is think about his problems, tell them to
his friend, and find other ways to deal with them. Bernard
refuses to run away from his problems. In fact the way he
lives causes him to take on the problems of the society along
with his own. Things like flying just to see the scenery and
look at the moon. For Bernard it was not where he lived,
but how he lived. One of the biggest similarity between
Bernard and Winston is their jobs. The positions they hold
allow them to hold links to the past and reality the way it
was. Winston would constant! ly review records about the
past as they actually happened. He would have to correct
past articles to delete people that had been vaporized. He
would then know exactly who was dead. Though he did not
know how, he could only guess how those people had died.
They had not been 100% faithful to Big Brother. Bernard s
job as a hypnopedia specialist allowed him to see why
people behaved the way they did. He knew that everything
was actually conditioning. He realized that everything was
fake and programmed. He saw the methods by which
people were programmed. This caused him to question the
methods. He saw how drastically these sleep treatments
changed people. He also knew how people were breed,
engineered and treated to be a certain way. He wanted to
question the predestination. That was the reason that
Bernard wanted to go to the savage reservation. He wanted
to see that way people used to live. How he believed people
should live. However, the very real feeling of van! ity and
fame caused him to lose sight of his goal to change society.
That was what both Winston and Bernard really wanted to
do. They wanted to change society back to the way it was.
The way it is today. Winston articulated this so much better.
He was able to put down his feelings in his dairy. The diary
was an old, yellow paged, ancient book purchased from the
owner of the antique store. It was supposedly a book
created before the great revolution and this is symbolic. It is
symbolic because most books created before the revolution
were destroyed. The best articulation that Bernard could
come up with was his feeble attempts to make the director
of the hatchery feel bad by going to the reservation over his
objections. Bernard tries to fight society and embarrass his
enemies, making them mad. He should have tried to show
the masses why the establishment is wrong. He should have
used the savage to show how a different life can mean
happiness. It should be fa! irly plain to the readers of
Orwell s 1984 and Huxley s Brave New World that
Winston and Bernard are warnings over what society is
heading towards. A time when only a very few will have
their individuality and sense to question the establishment. A
totalitarian society in which thoughts, actions and feelings are
controlled. A time were I has no meaning, and the debate
over freedoms will cease. We live in an imperfect society,
where people do wrong and make mistakes. The worlds in
which Winston and Bernard live do not even allow them to
make mistakes. They can only do what their leaders see as
right. In the end Winston and Bernard fail to achieve the
great change for society. They do make their great change
for themselves. They may end up in bad situations, however,
it was by their choice and doing. Something the rest of
society didn t have. I take this as a message to cherish the
most important thing we have in our society, CHOICE.