Реферат: Nutrition Essay Research Paper NutritionProper nutrition is

Nutrition Essay, Research Paper


Proper nutrition is a vital need in our bodies today. Without it, we couldnt perform our daily tasks

such as going to school, playing sports, or just walking around a store. All of these activities require your

body to be in good physical health. A good way to do that is to plan a regular exercise workout, and to eat

the proper foods that give you the much needed nutrition.

Prior to strenuous activity it is imperative that the body has the required amounts of nutrients to carry out an

activity. At the latest reference it is recommended that a person consume an average of 2200 mg of calories, 60 g of

fat, less than 5000 IU of vitamin A, more than 60 mg of vitamin C, 400 IU of vitamin D, more than 2000 mg of potassium,

2000 mg of sodium, 65 g of protein, 1.5 mg of thiamin, 1.7 mg of riboflavin, 20 mg of niacin, and 18 mg of

iron. Nutritionists of today simplify this into an equation of 40% carbohydrates, 30% fats, and 30% protein that the

entire day?s meals should be divided into. The total calorie intake must increase for active persons from 2200 to 2200

plus the total number used while exercising. This will ensure replenishment of the body?s system.

With the wide variety of athletic competitions, the specific meal a competitor may need to eat to benefit

themselves differs widely, as do the events. The last meal or two are extremely important in both their time of

consumption and content. It is these two factors that can cause a person to make or break their day just by their

choices. Experience plays a large role since one must attempt many different pre-competition meals before they will find

one that suits the individual. For most, the high carbohydrate diet is the choice; packing in as many as possible since

it is such a huge energy source. Also, judging by time, one must decide the size of the meal. To digest a large meal

takes 3-4 hours, a small meal 2-3 hours, liquid meal 1-2 hours, and a small snack takes less than an hour. A person may

even find a burst of caffeine to be helpful or may just want a feeling of ease by not eating anything at all. Without

practice and numerous trials the athlete may run into a problem by eating too large of a meal just before exercise and

feeling sluggish. There is also a possibility that by not eating properly the athlete may become dizzy and tired. If

anyone is serious about finding the ?ultimate pre-event food? they should constantly be testing and refining different

meals. This preparation of choice should get great attention since training methods are not as specific as eating


During an event digestion is 70% to 80% of its original speed. Therefore it is not wise to eat any regular sized

meal while participating in activities unless they are extremely lengthy such as hiking. For the most part liquids or

foods high in water content are your best bet for helping the system as long as they are non alcoholic. Alcohol is a

dehydrator. Fluids taken in will: transport glucose to

working muscles, eliminate waste products, eliminate metabolic byproducts, and dictate heat through sweating. The most

beneficial drink is orange juice or most any juice which will not only restore water and calories, but also many other

nutrients that Gatorade or cola can not do. A good guide for fluid replacement would be 8-10 ounces for every 20 min of

strenuous activity, even though this

may only be a half or a quarter of what you have lost it will help recovery time. Small nutrient packed snacks will

also prove beneficial to you during exercise.

Once the event is completed your body still requires loads of lost products to be replenished. Your first

priority should be the fluid loss that you were unable to keep up with during the exercise. How much? Well likely the

best guide to tell you when to stop is the urine test. If it is clear then the body is back to hydrated form and is no

longer getting rid of large quantities of metabolic waste. You can also calculate the amount of sweat lost by your

weight; for every pound lost you should drink at least 2 cups of water. And of course there is always the stand by

method of take as much as you feel you need since it is your body. Again alcohol is not to replace water. If you drink

a beer there is just that much more water you must have.

Carbohydrates and electrolytes are essential nutrients in the body to recover after physical activity. With in

two hours of working out it is recommended that, even though you don?t likely crave food, you ingest a carbohydrate rich

meal with adequate amounts of sodium and potassium. A good outline for the amount of carbohydrates would be 0.5 g for

every pound of body weight. You lose 90 mg of potassium for every pound of sweat, which can be

substituted by a juice, yogurt, or potato. And sodium can be taken as needed since you will crave salt if your body

needs it.

Inadequate replenishment will result in a slow recovery. It is also important that the body rests to allow for

digestion before continuing training. These factors could increase or decrease the entire recovery period by as much as

two days.

Many athletes believe training is the key to win. Most coaches do not include any form of nutrition into their

athletes core program. It does increase muscle mass, endurance, oxygen intake, skills, mental awareness, and many

more. It is where you see the most improvements in the human ability. The main thought on everyone?s mind is that the

more training I do the better I will become.

With this new attitude in mind many athletes in fields like swimming, running, a gymnasts consumed 400 to 700

less calories than what is recommended according to a study done by Carrie Johnston, a dietitian at McMaster

University. She found that scores will increase but eventually it peeked and plummeted. This is due to the lack of care

taken to ones diet. An athlete can become lighter and still have the required amounts of nutrients if they pay close

attention to their eating habits as well as their exercise habits.

Nutrition is the relationship of foods to the health of the human body.

Proper nutrition means that you are receiving enough foods and supplements for

the body to function at optimal capacity. It is important to remember that no

single nutrient or activity can maintain optimal health and well being, although

it has been proven that some nutrients are more important than others. All of

the nutrients are necessary in different amounts along with exercise to maintain

proper health.

There are six main types of nutrients used to maintain body health.

They are: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. They

all must be in balance for the body to function properly. There are also five

major food groups. The groups are: fats and oils, fruits and vegetables, dairy

products, grains, and meats.

Exercise is also an important part of nutrition. Exercise helps tone

and maintain muscle tissue and ensure that the body’s organs stay in good

condition. Healthy eating without exercise will not result in good nutrition

and a healthy body – neither will exercise without nutrition. The most

important thing about exercise is that it be practiced regularly and that it be

practiced in accompaniment with a healthy diet. It is also desirable to

practice more that one sport as different sports exercise different areas of the

body. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the sources of energy for the body.

The contained energy is expressed in calories. There are 9 calories per gram in

fat and there are about 4 calories per gram in proteins and carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body. This energy is mostly

used for muscle movement and digestion of food. Some sources of carbohydrates

are: grains, fruits, vegetables, and anything else that grows out of the ground.

The energy in carbohydrates is almost instantly digested. This results in a

quick rise in blood sugar which is soon followed by a drop in blood sugar which

is interpreted by the body as a craving for more sugars. This sugar low may

also result in fatigue, dizziness, nervousness, and headache. However, not all

carbohydrates do this. Most fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains are

digested more slowly.

Fats, which are lipids, are the source of energy that is

the most concentrated. Fats produce more that twice the amount of energy that

is in carbohydrates or proteins. Besides having a high concentration of energy,

fat acts as a carrier for the fat soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K. Also, by

helping in the absorption of vitamin D, fats help make calcium available to

various body tissues, in particular, the bones and teeth. Another function of

fat is to convert carotene to vitamin A. Fat also helps keep organs in place by

surrounding them in a layer of fat. Fat also surrounds the body in a layer that

preserves body temperature and keeps us warm. One other function of fat is to

slow the production of hydrochloric acid thereby slowing down digestion and

making food last longer. Some sources of fats are meats and nuts as well as

just plain oils and fats.

Proteins, besides water, are the most plentiful

substance in the body. Protein is also one of the most important element for

the health of the body. Protein is the major source of building material in the

body and is important in the development and growth of all body tissues.

Protein is also needed for the formation of all hormones. It also helps

regulate the body’s water balance. When proteins are digested they are broken

down into simpler sections called amino acids. However, not all proteins will

contain all the necessary amino acids. Most meat and dairy products contain all

necessary amino acids in their proteins. Proteins are available from both

plants and animals. However, Animal proteins are more complete and thus


Knowledge of the nutrients and their function is essential to

understanding the importance of good nutrition. As mentioned above, there are

six nutrients. All vitamins are organic food substances that are found only in

living things, plants and animals. It is believed that there are about twenty

substances that are active as vitamins in human nutrition. Every vitamin is

essential to the proper growth and development of the body. With a few

exceptions, the body cannot make vitamins and must be supplied with them.

Vitamins contain no energy but are important as enzymes which help speed up

nearly all metabolic functions. Also, vitamins are not building components of

body tissues, but aid in the construction of these tissues. It is impossible to

reliably determine the vitamin requirements of an individual because of

differences in age, sex, body size, genetic makeup, and activity. A good source

of a recommendation is the RDA. The RDA makes it’s recommendations based on

studies of consumption of the given nutrient. On the recommendation it will

usually specify what size diet the recommendation is based on, for example, a

two thousand calorie per day diet.

It is harmless to ingest excess of most vitamins. However, some vitamins are toxic in large amounts. Vitamin A is

a fat soluble vitamin which is only available in two forms. Pre-formed, which is

found in animal tissue. The other is carotene, which can be converted into

Vitamin A by animals. Carotene is found in easily found in carrots as well as

other vegetables. Vitamin A is important to the growth and repair of body

tissues and helps maintain a smooth, soft, and disease free skin. It also helps

protect the mucus membranes of the mouth, nose, throat, and lungs which reduces

the chance of infection. Another function is helping mucus membranes combat the

effects of air pollutants. Vitamin A also protects the soft lining of all the

digestive tract. Another function of vitamin A is to aid in the secretion of

gastric juices. The B complex vitamins have many known sub-types, but they all

are water soluble vitamins. The B vitamins can be cultivated from a variety of

bacteria, yeast, fungi, or molds. They are active in the body by helping the

body convert carbohydrates into glucose, a form of sugar. B vitamins are also

vital in the metabolism of proteins and fats. They are also the single most

important element in the health of the nerves. B vitamins are also essential

for the maintenance of the gastrointestinal tract, the health of the skin, hair,

eyes, mouth, liver, and muscle tone. The intestine contain a bacteria that

produces vitamin b but milk-free diets, and taking sulfonamides or antibiotics

can destroy these bacteria. Whole grains contain high concentrations of B

complex vitamins. Also, enriched bread and cereal products contain high

concentrations of B vitamins due to a governmental intervention of the whole

food group to ensure that the nation was getting enough B vitamins Vitamin C,

also known as ascorbic acid, is a water soluble vitamin. It is sensitive to

oxygen and is the least stable of all vitamins. One primary function of

vitamin C is to maintain collagen, a protein necessary for the formation of skin,

ligaments, and bones. Vitamin C also plays a role in healing of burns and

wounds because it aids the formation of scar tissue. It also helps form red

blood cells and prevent hemorrhaging. Another function is to prevent the

disease, scurvy, which used to be seen in sailors because of their lack of

vitamin C in their diet. This was corrected by issuing each sailor one lime per

day which supplied citric acid, a source of vitamin C. Other sources include

broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Strawberries, Oranges, and grapefruits. Vitamin E

is a fat soluble vitamin which is made up of a group of compounds called

tocoherols. There are seven forms of it but the form known as Alpha tocoherol

is the most potent. Tocoherols occur in the highest concentrations in cold

pressed vegetable oils, all whole raw seeds and nuts, and soybeans. Vitamin E

plays an essential role in cellular respiration of all muscles, especially the

cardiac and skeletal. It makes these muscles able to function with less oxygen,

thereby increasing efficiency and stamina. It also is an antioxidant, which

prevents oxidization. This prevents saturated fatty compounds from breaking

down and combining to form toxic compounds.

Minerals are nutrients that exist

in the body and in organic and inorganic combinations. There are approximately

seventeen minerals that are necessary in human nutrition. Although only about

four or five percent of the body weight is mineral matter, minerals are

important to overall mental and physical health. All of the body’s tissues and

fluids contain some amount of mineral. Minerals are necessary for proper muscle

function and many other biological reactions in the body. Minerals are also

important in the production of hormones. Another important function of minerals

is to maintain the delicate water balance of the body and to regulate the

blood’s pH. Physical and emotional stress causes a strain on the body’s supply

of minerals. A mineral deficiency often results in illness, which may be

treated by the addition of the missing mineral to the diet. Calcium, a primary

mineral, is available through dairy products. In order to get all the other

minerals, one should eat protein rich foods, seeds, grains, nuts, greens, and

limited amounts of salt or salty foods.

Nutrition is just one aspect of total

body health. It is important to remember that one must compliment good nutrition

with good exercise and emotional health in order to achieve complete well being.


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