Реферат: Cigarette Smoking Essay Research Paper Cigarette smoking
Cigarette Smoking Essay, Research Paper
Cigarette smoking is one of the major killers in the world. The biggest side affect from smoking is Cancer. Cancer is a group of many related diseases. All forms of Cancer involve out-of-control growth and spread of abnormal cells. The American Cancer Society estimates that cigarettes are responsible for about 419,000 deaths in the united states each year. The largest killing cancer is Lung Cancer, which accounts for 30% of all U.S cancer deaths. The risk of dying from lung cancer is 22 times higher for males, and 12 times higher for female smokers as oppose to nonsmokers. Additionally, smokers are at an increased risk for cancer of the larynx, oral cavity, esophagus, bladder, kidney and pancreas.
Health effects of smoking
Smoking causes a five time increase in the risk of dying from chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and a two time increase in deaths from diseases of the heart and coronary arteries. Smoking also increases the risk of stroke by 40-50% in men and 60% in women. Researchers have also proven that mothers who smoke while pregnant or before they got pregnant usually give birth to babies with birth defects, who are premature or are underweight. This is probably because of a decrease in blood flow to the placenta.Tobacco Smoke
The ways in which tobacco smoke affects the human body have been under extensive research and study for many years. Recent findings may explain why cigarettes are so addicting. An unknown component or part of tobacco smoke appears to destroy an important enzyme in the brain called monoamine oxsidase B (MOA B). The enzyme is essential in breaking down excess amounts of the chemical dopamine, a nerve cell messenger chemical and one that is involved in pleasure-seeking behaviour. Apparently smokers have low levels of MOA B and have exceptionally abnormal levels of dopamine, which most likely encourage the smoker to go for the more pleasure seeking things such as smoking, and sometimes experimenting with more mind altering drugs.
Recent research has focused on the effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). This is the effect of smoke in the atmosphere and the environment and how it affects the non-smokers. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that exposure to ETS, which contains all of the same toxic chemicals that the smoker inhales, causes 3000 cancer deaths a year in non-smokers. It can also provoke less serious diseases such as asthma, impaired blood circulation, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
5 Facts About Children And Tobacco Use
1)Everyday more than 3000 adolescents (in the United States) smoke their first cigarette, taking the first big step to becoming regular smokers. One-third of these ?new? smokers will eventually die of a tobacco related disease. 2) Forty percent of all teenagers who have tried to quit smoking have failed. 3) Smoking is one of those addictions that you get before you reach adulthood (18 years). 89% of all people who have ever smoke started doing it before they reached the age of 18. Barely anyone starts to smoke after that age (adulthood). 4) 70% of adolescent smokers wish that they hadn?t started and have tried to quit but did not succeed. 5) More than 80% of adolescent smokers who smoke more than a pack a day, report that they need or depend on cigarettes.
Cigarette Smoking And Adult Leukemia
Several studies over the years have suggested and have shown that cigarette smoking increases risk of leukemia, as it does for other cancer prone areas. They say that risk may increase about thirty percent in active smokers and may cause up to 3,600 cases of adult leukemia a year. The report combines the results of 15 studies, including the Cancer Prevention Studies 1 and 2. This combined analysis strengthens the evidence that smoking may cause adult leukemia, especially myelocytic, or non lymphocytic forms.CIGAR SMOKING AND CANCER
Is cigar smoking on the rise?
Cigar smoking is currently the latest trend in the U.S, especially among young men and women. It is fueled in part by the efforts of tobacco companies trying to glamorize them. Especially for women, the industry seems to have risen. Teenagers or young adults may be particularly vulnerable because of the mistaken idea that cigars are safer than cigarettes. From 1973 to 1993 cigar smoking had been on the decline. Since 1993 however, cigar use in the U.S has increased to nearly 50%. Use of small cigars has gone up about 13% while consumption of large cigars has risen nearly 70% during this time period. Sales of even the premium cigars has risen to an all time high of an estimated 250%.
The greatest increase in adult cigar smoking is among the young and middle-aged white men (ages 18 to 44) with higher than average incomes and education. There is a boom in the popularity of premium cigars that is also similar to the interest in gourmet coffee and micro brewery beers. The health risks of cigar smoking are, again, ignored in this effort of making cigars look ?cool? or ?better than cigarettes?.Do Cigars Cause Health Problems?
Smoking as little as ONE cigar per day can increase the risk of several cancers, including cancer of the oral cavity (lip, tongue, mouth, throat), esophagus, larynx, and lung. Cigar smoking may be linked to the cancer of the pancreas as well.
Daily cigar smoking, especially for people who inhale, also increases the risk of heart disease and a type of lung disease known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD. Just smoking one or two cigars a day doubles the risk for oral cancers and esophageal cancer, compared to someone who has never smoked in their life. And smoking as few as one or two a day increases the risk of cancer to the voice box (larynx) by more than six times that of a non-smokers. There are some differences between cigar and cigarette smoke, though. These differences are due to the long aging and fermentation process used for cigar tobacco. The cigar wrapper is also not quite as porous as the cigarette paper. Cigar tobacco has a high concentration of nitrogen compounds ( nitrates and nitrites). Also, because the cigar paper isn?t as porous as the cigarette paper, the tobacco doesn?t burn as well. The result is a higher concentration of nitrogen oxides, ammonia, carbon monoxide and tar. They are all very harmful to the smoker and to the environment.
Withdrawal results in many side effects. Some of which include:
?Irritability and anxiety: Emotional changes, such as irritability and anxiety, may be experienced as the body adjusts to surviving without the nicotine. These feelings become less intense as the body adjusts.
?Difficulty Concentrating: A feeling of light-headedness and a feeling of disorientation may affect your concentration. The body is now receiving more oxygen than it is used to receiving, but in a few days it should return to normal.
?Tingles, aches and pains: Muscular aches, pains and tingling sensations can happen because there is more oxygen than normal in the body, especially in the smaller blood vessels (fingers and toes).
?Weight Gain: Sometimes people who have quit feel more hungry than usual and may gain weight. The temptation to cover the urge to smoke should be avoided for excessive weight gain can occur. Light exercise will also help.
?Difficulty sleeping: Sometimes ex-smokers find that they have insomnia. This is because of the withdrawal from nicotine. After a week or two this should stop.
?Headaches: Quitting can be stressful, so try to relieve the extra pressure by doing stress busting breathing exercises such as yoga, and try listening to relaxing music.
?Effects Of Caffeine: Once the body is free of nicotine, it absorbs about twice as much caffeine. It is best to avoid increasing coffee, tea and cola intake.Women and smoking
Approximately 22 million adult women and at least 1.5 million adolescent girls smoke cigarettes. The use of tobacco in this population has been shown to increase the risk of cancer, heart and respiratory disease, and reproductive disorders. More than 140,000 women die each year from smoking related diseases. *THE MOST PREVENTABLE CAUSE OF PREMATURE DEATH IN THE UNITED STATES*Health affects to women
Using tobacco increases a woman?s risk of chronic health problems and premature death.1.Cancers: Tobacco use accounts for nearly one third of all cancer deaths. An estimated 67,000 women die each year from lung cancer. About 73% of these deaths are 35 to 45 years old. Lung cancer is the leading killer, even surpassing Breast Cancer. These deaths are due to smoking. The lung cancer death rate has increased by more than 400% over the last 30 years and is continuing to increase. In addition to increasing the risk of lung cancer, tobacco also causes cervical, mouth, larynx, pharynx, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, and bladder.
2.Heart Disease and Stroke: Women who smoke greatly increase their risk of heart attack and stroke. Each year approximately 34,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease among women are due to smoking. In addition to that 8,000 deaths from stroke are due to first and second hand smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke).
3.Reproductive Health: Tobacco use has a very damaging effect on a woman?s entire body, causing pregnancy problems, early menopause and reduced fertility. A major cancer that affects the reproductive health is cervical cancer.
4.Low Birth Weight: Recent estimates suggest that quitting smoking during pregnancy could prevent from 17% to 26% of cases of low birth weight. Tobacco use during pregnancy often results in severe retardation.Health Risks
Tobacco use in women increases the risk of:
?heart disease and stroke
?pneumoniaENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS)
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the combination of two forms of smoke from burning tobacco products.
* Sidestream Smoke, or smoke that comes from a burning cigarette, pipe or
cigar between puffs; and
*Mainstream Smoke, or the smoke that is exhaled by the smoker.
When a cigarette is smoked, about one-half of the smoke generated is sidestream smoke that comes from the burning cigarette between puffs. This sidestream smoke contains many of the same carcinogenic(cancer-causing) and toxic agents that have been identified in the maistream smoke inhaled by the smoker. The concentration is much higher in mainstream smoke as oppose to the smoke in sidestream smoke.
More than 4000 chemical compounds have been identified in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Many of these chemicals are toxic and several are carcinogenic or tumor initiators( substances that can result in changes in normal sells that can lead to cancer) and tumor promoters( substances that can lead to tumor growth once the cell changes begin). Tobacco smoke includes at least 43 different carcinogenic substances. Some of these compounds include: TAR, CARBON MONOXIDE, HYDROGEN CYANIDE, PHENOLS, AMMONIA, FORMALDEHYDE, BENZENE, NITROSAMINE, AND NICOTINE.
The exposure of non smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is referred to as second hand smoke. Nonsmokers who are exposed to ETS absorb just as much chemicals as mainstream smokers do. They don?t receive them in such high concentrations, but even the littlest amount is enough to be fatal. ETS causes at least 3000 deaths due to lung cancer in non smokers. The age range is from approximately 16 and up. If there are family members in a household and they smoke, it is absorbed in the furniture and the surroundings and is always there so long as the members keep smoking. It is especially harmful any children, and senior citizens or pets, even if the smoking isn?t done near them.Tobacco Advertising and Children
Tobacco companies claim that the advertising is only for the adult smokers, however these ads also reach children. Eighty six percent of underage smokers prefer one of the more advertised brands such as Marlboro, Newport or Camel. Adults who buy a variety of brands including unadvertised discount brands are much less likely to have children that smoke these 3 brands. Ninety-eight percent of teens surveyed by ?USA Today? reported that they are familiar with the Joe Camel cartoon character. One of the advertising campaigns that is most seen and is blatantly aimed at young people is the Joe Camel campaign. After RJ Reynolds introduced this ad, Camel?s market share among underage smokers jumped from 3 percent to 13.3 percent in three years. One of the most effective and one of the easiest ways tobacco companies reach kids is by giving things away, such as T-shirts, posters, baseball caps and other ?trinkets and trash? as it is referred to in the business.