Реферат: DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS OVER THE DECADES Essay
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS OVER THE DECADES Essay, Research Paper
A Computer is an electronic device that can receive a set of instructions, or program, and then carry out this program by performing calculations on numerical data or by compiling and correlating other forms of information.
The modern world of high technology could not have come about except for the development of the computer. Different types and sizes of computers find uses throughout society in the storage and handling of data, from secret governmental files to banking transactions to private household accounts. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing through the techniques of automation, and they have enhanced modern communication systems. They are essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology, from constructing models of the universe to producing tomorrow’s weather reports, and their use has in itself opened up new areas of conjecture. Database services and computer networks make available a great variety of information sources. The same advanced techniques also make possible invasions of privacy and of restricted information sources, but computer crime has become one of the many risks that society must face if it would enjoy the benefits of modern technology. (Gulliver 12-15)
Imagine a world without computers. That would mean no proper means of communicating, no Internet, no video games. Life would be extremely difficult. Adults would have to store all their office work paper and therefore take up an entire room. Teenagers would have to submit course-works and projects hand-written. All graphs and diagrams would have to be drawn neatly and carefully. Youngsters would never have heard of ‘video-games’ and will have to spend their free time either reading or playing outside with friends. But thanks to British mathematicians, Augusta Ada Byron and Charles Babbage, our lives are made a lot easier. (Malone 5-6)
There are two main types of computers that are in use today, analog and digital computers, although the term computer is often used to mean only the digital type. Analog computers exploit the mathematical similarity between physical interrelationships in certain problems, and employ electronic or hydraulic circuits to simulate the physical problem. Digital computers solve problems by performing sums and by dealing with each number digit by digit. (Cringley 28-30)
Hybrid computers are those that contain elements of both analog and digital computers. They are usually used for problems in which large numbers of complex equations, known as time integrals, are to be computed. Data in analog form can also be fed into a digital computer by means of an analog- to-digital converter, and the same is true of the reverse situation. (Cringley 31-32)
The French philosopher Blaise Pascal devised the first adding machine, a precursor of the digital computer, in 1642. This device employed a series of ten-toothed wheels, each tooth representing a digit from 0 to 9. The wheels were connected so that numbers could be added to each other by advancing the wheels by a correct number of teeth. In the 1670s the German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz improved on this machine by devising one that could also multiply.
The French inventor Joseph Marie Jacquard, in designing an automatic loom, used thin, perforated wooden boards to control the weaving of complicated designs. During the 1880s the American statistician Herman Hollerith conceived the idea of using perforated cards, similar to Jacquard’s boards, for processing data. Employing a system that passed punched cards over electrical contacts, he was able to compile statistical information for the 1890 U.S. census. (Hazewindus 44-48)
Also in the 19th century, the British mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage worked out the principles of the modern digital computer. He conceived a number of machines, such as the Difference Engine, that were designed to handle complicated mathematical problems. Many historians consider Babbage and his associate, the British mathematician Augusta Ada Byron (Lady Lovelace, 1815-52), the daughter of the English poet Lord Byron, the true inventors of the modern digital computer. The technology of their time was not capable of translating their sound concepts into practice; but one of their inventions, the Analytical Engine, had many features of a modern computer. It had an input stream in the form of a deck of punched cards, a “store” for saving data, a “mill” for arithmetic operations, and a printer that made a permanent record. (Hazewindus 56-58)
Late in the 1960s the integrated circuit, or IC, was introduced, making it possible for many transistors to be fabricated on one silicon substrate, with inter- connecting wires plated in place. The IC resulted in a further reduction in price, size, and failure rate. The microprocessor became a reality in the mid-1970s with the introduction of the large-scale integrated (LSI) circuit and, later, the very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit, with many thousands of interconnected transistors etched into a single silicon substrate.
To return, then, to the “switch-checking” capabilities of a modern computer: computers in the 1970s generally were able to check eight switches at a time. That is, they could check eight binary digits, or bits, of data, at every cycle. A group of eight bits is called a byte, each byte containing 256 possible patterns of ONs and OFFs (or 1’s and 0’s). Each pattern is the equivalent of an instruction, a part of an instruction, or a particular type of datum, such as a number or a character or a graphics symbol. The pattern 11010010, for example, might be binary data-in this case, the decimal number 210 (see NUMBER SYSTEMS)-or it might tell the computer to compare data stored in its switches to data stored in a certain memory-chip location. (Gulliver 30-33)
The development of processors that can handle 16, 32, and 64 bits of data at a time has increased the speed of computers. The complete collection of recognizable patterns-the total list of operations-of that a computer is capable is called its instruction set. Both factors-number of bits at a time, and size of instruction sets-continue to increase with the ongoing development of modern digital computers. (Dolotta 7-13)
Major changes in the use of computers have developed since it was first invented. Computers have expanded, via telephone lines, into vast nation-wide, or worldwide, networks. At each extremity of the network is a terminal device, or even a large computer, which can send jobs over the wire to the central computer at the hub of the network. The central computer performs the computation or data processing and sends the results over the wire to any terminal in the network for printing. Some computer networks provide a service called time-sharing. This is a technique in which software shifts the computer from one task to another with such timing that it appears to each user at a terminal that he has exclusive use of the computer. (Malone 59-62)
Other developments in the industry are aimed at increasing the speed at which data can be transmitted. Improvements are being made continually in modems and in the communications networks. Some public data networks support transmission of 56,000 bits per second (bps), and modems for home use are capable of as much as 56kbps. (Chposky 40-42)
CD’s have developed a lot over the past decade. At first, they were used only for music. Now, there are CD’s from which we can play PC games and watch movies. The games at present are usually 3D. This means that the game seems almost life-like or virtual. One can spend hours playing games on CD because they are addictive. This is one of the main disadvantages of computer games, because the person prevents himself or herself from doing anything educational or engaging themselves in any physical activities. Another common disadvantage is that playing too much on the computer can cause bad eyesight. But there are a few educational games for young children to help them learn and understand things better. Games may not be all that good for an individual, but if seen how they are programmed one will realize that it is not all easy to program a game. (Gulliver 100-105)
A few years ago, if one were bored, they would usually go to a video shop and rent a movie. Now one can rent Movie CD’s and play them on the computer and special Movie CD players, which are also installed. We have made many advantages though the years, and we are still making more in leaps and bounds. Computers have become a major part of our lives, and will continue to be forever.
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Malone, Michael S. The Big Scare: The U.S. Computer Industry. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1985.