Реферат: The European Renaissance Essay Research Paper The

The European Renaissance Essay, Research Paper

The European Renaissance

The Renaissance was a period of European history, considered

by modern scholars as that between 1300 and 1600. Many dramatic

changes happened during the Renaissance. The Renaissance was a

period of new inventions and beliefs.

The Renaissance was drastically different from the Middle

Ages. During the Middle Ages the church held most of the power and

it’s economy was agriculturally based. Exploration and learning

was almost put to a stop. During the Renaissance society was

transformed into a society increasingly dominated by central political

institutions with an urban commercial attitude. Also, people’s

curiosity overcame their fear and many people started to venture out

and explore. New schools and colleges became more and more common.

The Renaissance was started by many rich Italian cities, such

as Florence, Ferrara, Milan ,and Venice. Because these cities were

very wealthy, many merchants started to spend money on different

things, such as painting, learning, new banking techniques, and new

systems of government. These things gave rise to a new type of

scholar, the humanist. Humanism was subjects concerned with humankind

and culture. They studied various things such as Latin, Greek

language, literature and philosophy. Music and mathematics were also

studied as well.

The Renaissance gave way to new forms of painting, art and

sculpture. During the Renaissance, artist were no longer regarded as

mere artisans, as they had been to the medieval past, but for the

first time emerged as independent personalities, compared to poets and

writers. Many artisans merged mathematics with art, in order to

become more precise in their measurements and to make sure an object

was supported both rationally and proportionally. As a result

painters tried and often succeeded into making their painting a window

into the world. Artists also studied the way light hits objects and

the way our eyes perceive light. A new kind of paint called oil paint

was used. This allowed the artist to create texture, mix colors, and

allow more time for corrections before it dried.

The printing press was probably the most important advance in

technology. Europeans first used movable metal type to print a book.

On small pieces of metal they engraved single letters of the

alphabet. These could then be arranged and rearranged to form words

and sentences. Johan Gutenberg is usually given credit for the first

book printed, a copy of the Bible. By the 1500’s printing presses

where fairly well spread. The printing press had many effects on the

world. First of all, it made books much easier to come by, which made

them cheaper. That meant common people could afford them. As a result

literacy became more widespread, in contrast to the Middle Ages where

usually monks and church officials were the only able to read.

Second, since many more people were able to read, they wanted to read

subjects other than religious or scientific work. So books on other

subjects were published as well. Also many books were published in

languages other than Latin, such as English, Portuguese, Spanish,

French, and Italian. A third effect was that scholars had better

access to one anothers work. They could also read the great works of

the ancient and medieval periods.

The Renaissance also had an effect on the general society.

Many people became interested in politics. Also, people became

interested in the world outside of their towns. Many became

explorers, merchants, and map makers. Religion especially changed

during the Renaissance. In the Middle ages people were primarily

concerned with serving the church and getting to heaven. But

the increase in arts and education gave people something to look

forward to, and a life worth living. So in turn, people based their

lives around various other things instead of the church. Because of

the increase in literacy people learned that the Catholic Church only

told the populous what they wanted them to hear. This caused many

people to break away from the church and form Protestant religions.

The Renaissance produced many great minds. Leonardo da Vinci

was one of these. Although he was not regarded as a genius in his

time. He had numerous works of art such as the Mona Lisa and

The Last Supper. He also is now regarded as a great inventor. He is

credited for coming up with the idea of the helicopter. He dissected

corpses to learn more about human anatomy. Another great man was a

German monk, Martin Luther. He taught Biblical studies at the

University of Wittenberg. Luther’s beliefs challenged the church

although many people agreed with his ideas. He was eventually

excommunicated from the church and he started Protestantism.

In conclusion, the Renaissance was a time of new awakening in

Europe. It include the general loss of power by the church, an

increase in literacy and education, and an exploration period.

еще рефераты
Еще работы по на английском языке