Реферат: Causes Of Islamic Conquest Essay Research Paper

Causes Of Islamic Conquest Essay, Research Paper

Early Islamic conquests saw fragmented tribal

society unified and led by a ruling elite committed to settlement and

Islam. Arab migrations to Fertile Crescent explained

result of policy towards tribesmen.?

Recruited and settled in garrison towns? easier to control them

and instruments of expansion and control.?

Incentives strong? wealth of army pay, respect Little evidence migration to settle on rich new

lands? emigrant tribesmen preferred to remain clustered in garrison towns

or in quarters of established towns. Overpopulation? Umar had difficulty recruiting for

3rd civil war and would surplus population survived in marginal

environment?? Tenuous at best does

not explain sudden burst of energy. Collapse of Arabian luxury trade? affects Quraysh

and Thaqif and to send tribesmen forward to recapture this implies

political integration with control.?

Migration state policy and implemented by the state? served

economic interests of the ruling elites.?

?The sooner one settles, the sooner one receives a stipend?.. Difficult to assess strategic or tactical prowess

as almost nothing known.? Musims

had no technological advantage and were inferior in terms of cavalry. Conquests made easier by exhaustion of Byzantine

and Sasanian Empire due to prolonged warfare, confusion that reigned in

Sasanian ruling house, disruption caused by recent enemy occupation of

Syria and Iraq, destruction wrought by immense floods in Southern Iraq,

disaffection for religious and other reasons, convenience of inner lines

of communication that Muslims enjoyed Single most important? remarkable degree to which

a new a new Islamic state with an expansionist policy could harness for

its purposes rugged warriors of Arabia. Rise of state made it possible to weld into a

effective fighting force tribesmen whose energies had previously been

consumed by petty quarrels among themselves and whose political horizons

limited to own tribe and own affairs. Success conquests first and foremost product of

organizational breakthrough of proportions unparalleled in Arabian world. How could have succeeded without rise of a state

capable of integrate Arabia?s fragmented society and draw on it to attain

well-defined political and military objectives.? Not too rash to suggest might have succeeded without Byzantine

and Sasanian troubles. Muslims succeeded because able to organize

effective conquest movement? impact new religion of Islam which provided

ideological underpinnings for remarkable breakthrough in social

organisations? truly an Islamic movement? Islam set of beliefs preached

by Muhammad? social and political ramifications sparked whole integration

process and hence ultimate cause of conquests? success. Question is why did they pursue expansionist

aims?? Religious reasons? the

elite saw expansion as divine order or way forward? clearly felt by

contemporaries to be profound effect? look at social and political

changes.? Islam provides

ideological sanction for personal expansion aim.? Either God?s will or ideologically comfort for persona

desire. Much of elite? Quraysh and Thawif and many Medinese

expand political boundaries to secure the trans-Arabian commerce? or

recapture routes that had moved north. Ample evidence suggesting elite still interested in

trade? Quraysh with long-standing links Syria may well have wanted to go

there? financial advantages acquisition of properties, ability of state

to levy taxes, booty in wealth and slaves? example ?Utba b. Abi Sufyan

Umar?s tax agent over Kinana tribe wanted to use money for trade. Expansion in order to preserve hard-won position at

top of the political hierarchy.? Policy of encouraging tribesmen to emigrate – upon

which continual dominance based itself dependent on conquest of new

domains in which emigrant tribesmen could be lodged? early strategy then

to get Syria or Iraq or part of state?s drive to consolidate power over

all Arab tribes including those on Syrian desert and fringes of Iraq.? Process generated direct cashes with

Byzantine and Sasanian Empires? led ultimately to conquest of Syria and

Iraq? – does not necessarily imply

conquest of Syria and Iraq conscious objective from the start. Absence of primary sources that might illuminate

actual motivations? objectives will remain guesses – true causes of

Islamic conquests will remain forever beyond grasp of historical analysis GENERAL POINTS? starting point civilisation

medieval Islam? beginning of the end of late antique world.? Dramatic change political patterns

prevailing led to geo-political realities turned upside down.???????


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