Реферат: Baseball Essay Research Paper Baseball has been
Baseball Essay, Research Paper
Baseball has been a part of American life scene the beginning of the century. Baseball has provided American citizens with entertainment. Baseball has also given people hope when they are down, because their team will always be there.
In New York City 1842 the first professional baseball club was founded, the New York Knickerbockers by Alexander Cartwright. The Knickerbockers where the first team to develop a system of rules for the game in 1845. They re where twenty rules for baseball. One of the rules were nine players on the field. Before this rule there use to be five to fifty people on each team. They also established bases set apart equally and formed a diamond. They also abolished throwing the baseball at the runners to get them out. They only used tagging and force-outs. The most significant change was the development of foul lines. Before this every ball was in play. The development of foul lines also let spectators watch the game close to the action. In the mid 1850 s the game gained popularity and spread out of the city the game was called the New York Game. In the Civil War Union solders explained and played it with one another. They spread the game all Over the United States. It latter was called just baseball. In 1858 the national association of baseball players (NABBP) was formed. (Encarta)
The first baseball game was played in 1846. The game was played in Hoboken New Jersey. The teams where the New York Knickerbockers verse the team called the New York Club. The Knickerbockers lost twenty-three to one. (Burns and Ward)
In 1869 the first professional baseball team was formed of all pros. The team name was the Cincinnati Red Stockings. They would travel and play amateur teams providing entertainment and recreation. In 1870 the professional baseball players outnumbered the amateurs in the NABBP. The remaining amateurs withdrew. The foundation latter changed its name to the National Association Professional Baseball Players (NAPBBP). The new association represented baseball players from ten teams. This was the first professional baseball league. In 1876 the (NAPBBP) folded from poor management. (Encarta)
In 1876 eight baseball clubs sent a representative to a meeting to create new more structured league. In this meeting the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs the clubs were from Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Hartford, Louisville, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and New York. In 1883 the American Association developed. The two teams agreed to have exhibition games and the best two team s meat in a championship. In 1891 the American Association collapsed, the four best teams joined the National League. In 1901 the American League was founded, in 1903 the best two teams meet in a championship. (Encarta)
In 1919 the Cincinnati Reds beat the Chicago White Sox (Black Sox). Next season eight from the White Sox players were banned for taking bribes from gamblers. This scandal damaged baseballs image though the mid 1920 s. Not until a slugger named Ruth game came about. He hit more homeruns by him self than whole teams. He was originally a pitcher for the Boston Red Socks. Then his skills as an outstanding batter
came about. He was traded to the New York Yankees in 1920 and played there until 1935. (Burns and Ward)
April 15 1947 Jackie Robinson was the first black player to play in the major leagues. He opened the door for black athletes in baseball. In his first year Jackie Robinson was the Rookie of the Year. He also led the Brooklyn Dodgers to a pennant. That year Robinson endured racial prejudice and bigotry. Players even spat on him threw pitches at his head and tried to injure him. He retired in 1956 and inducted to the hall of fame in 1962. (Burns and Ward) With out Jackie Robinson baseball would not be what it is today.
In the 1950 s several teams relocated. The Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee, the Brooklyn Dodgers moved to Los Angeles, and the New York Giants moved to San Francisco. This brought baseball to other markets west of the Mississippi River. In the late 1950 s baseball saw the effect of the teams moving to other cities. Both leagues added four new teams in 1962. Twelve teams in each league two divisions in each league the east and west. In 1973 the American league adopted the designated hitter rule. This meant that the pitcher would not bat. That increased homeruns and drew more people two ballparks. In 1977 the American League added two teams making fourteen teams. In 1993 the national league added two teams making both leagues fourteen teams. (Microsoft) This meant that the leagues must be restructured. Each league had three divisions and a wild card for playoffs. In 1996 the Milwaukee Brewers moved to the National league to even out the central division in each league. In 1998 baseball added two expansion teams making the National league have sixteen teams and the
American league having fourteen teams. In 2000 MLB is proposing to restructure the leagues, making four divisions in the National League and three divisions in the American League.
Baseball has effected many people s lives threw its existence. In New York in the 1950 s baseball was life there was three teams. Those teams were all the best in their league. Everyday people rooted for their favorite team. This helped them deal with problems, because when they watched baseball it brought them to another level and made them feel better about their selves when their team one. Now baseball is all about much you spend on your teams. To be in contention for the World Series you must spend more then sixty million dollars. Some small market teams can not handle that kind of pay roll. For now baseball has lost its competitiveness threw out the last couple of years.