Реферат: Cocaine Essay Research Paper Cocaine is a

Cocaine Essay, Research Paper

Cocaine is a drug extracted from the leaves of the coca

plant. It is a potent brain stimulant and one of the most

powerfully addictive drugs.

Cocaine is distributed on the street in two main forms:

cocaine hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder that

can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected; and

«crack» is cocaine hydrochloride that has been

processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking

soda) and water into a freebase cocaine. These chips,

chunks, or rocks can be smoked.

Cocaine may be used occasionally, daily, or in a variety

of compulsive, repeated-use «binges». Regardless of

how it is used, cocaine is highly addictive. Crack cocaine

and injected cocaine reach the brain quickly and bring an

intense and immediate high. Snorted cocaine produces a

high more slowly.

Cocaine can produce a surge in energy, a feeling of

intense pleasure, and increased confidence. The effects

of powder cocaine last about 20 minutes, while the

effects of «crack» last about 12 minutes. Heavy use of

cocaine may produce hallucinations, paranoia,

aggression, insomnia, and depression.

Cocaine’s effects are short lived, and once the drug

leaves the brain, the user experiences a «coke crash» that

includes depression, irritability, and fatigue.

Many people ask is cocaine addictive?

Yes. Cocaine can take over your life and cause you to

lose interest in everything else. Studies in monkeys have

shown that animals will work very hard (press a bar over

10,000 times) for a single injection of cocaine, choose

cocaine over food and water, and take cocaine even

when this behavior is punished. Animals must have their

access to cocaine limited in order not to take toxic or

even lethal doses. People addicted to cocaine behave

similarly. They will go to great lengths to get cocaine and

continue to take it even when it hurts their school or job

performance and their relationships with loved ones.

Do users develop a tolerance to crack or cocaine?

Yes. Users may find they need more and more of the

drug to get high.

What are the effects of cocaine use?

Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. It acts on

the «pleasure centers» of the brain, producing

heightened pleasure and increased confidence. Other

immediate effects include dilated pupils and elevated

blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body

temperature. The pleasurable effects of powder cocaine

last about 20 minutes. Occasional use can cause a stuffy

or runny nose, and chronic use can ulcerate the mucous

membrane of the nose. Injecting cocaine with

contaminated equipment can cause AIDS, hepatitis, and

other diseases. Preparation of freebase cocaine, which

involves the use of volatile solvents, can result in death

or injury from fire or explosion.

Effects include constricted peripheral blood vessels,

elevated temperature, and increased heart rate and blood

pressure. Some cocaine users report feelings of

restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. Prolonged cocaine

use and smoking crack cocaine can also trigger paranoid

behavior. Cocaine may also harm the health and

development of infants born to women who use cocaine

during pregnancy. When addicted individuals stop

using cocaine, they often suffer from depression and

anxiety, and the inability to experience pleasure from

normally pleasurable activities. This makes it extremely

difficult or the recovering addict to stay clean.

Cocaine in its freebase form is extremely addictive, and

its effects are felt within 10 seconds. The physical effects

include dilated pupils, increased pulse rate, elevated

blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite, tactile

hallucinations, paranoia, and seizure. The use of cocaine

can cause death by cardiac arrest or respiratory failure.

Appearance of cocaine.

Cocaine sold on the street is in the form of a white

powdery substance. it resembles snowflakes, crystal or

lactose. This accounts for two of its nicknames: «crystal»

and «snow». It is «cut» for street sale, much like heroin.(

This means the drug is diluted with some other

substance.) In street samples cocaine purity ranges any

where from 15% – 50% with an average purity of 25%

cocaine. Cocaine is cut with mannitol, lactose, insitold,


Under the Influence Symtoms

Under the influence of cocaine means that there is

physical evident cocaine present in the body such as

dilated pupils, hyperactive nervous system, muscle

relaxation, and cocaine found in blood or urine. Since

cocaine’s activity level in the body is 3-6 hours following

use the term «under the influence» is restricted to users

who show physical evidence of cocaine during its

activity period of 3-6 hours.

Persons using cocaine can show evidence of the


Rapidity of speech (low dose)

Aggitated or hyperstimulated appearance (low


Slowing or slurred speech (high dose)

Sedated or sleepy (high dose)

High pulse and respiration rate

Pupil size will be dilated

Needle marks

Presence of cocaine in nasal passage

Hallucinations or delusions

How many people use cocaine?

The number of regular cocaine users has declined by

75% since 1986. In 1995, according to the National

Household Survey on Drug Abuse, an estimated 1.45

million Americans were current cocaine users; that is,

they had used cocaine at least once in the past month.

Of that number, an estimated one-half million were

current crack users. As in the past, the rate of current

cocaine use was highest among young adults. In 1995,

approximately 54% of current cocaine users were aged

between 18 and 34

1.Pollack MH, Brotman AW, Rosenbaum JF.

«Cocaine abuse and treatment.» Comprehensive

Psychiatry 1989 Jan- Feb;30(1):31-44.

2.Vandette JM, Cornish LA. «Medical

complications of illicit cocaine use.» Clin Pharm

1989 Jun;8:401-11.

еще рефераты
Еще работы по на английском языке