Реферат: Gamma HydroxyButyrate GHB Essay Research Paper GHB

Gamma HydroxyButyrate (GHB) Essay, Research Paper

GHB, or Gamma-Hydroxy Butyric Acid is an

intoxicating chemical with medical, recreational, and potentially entheogenic

uses. It is a normal component of mammalian metabolism. It is naturally

found in every cell in the human body and is most properly considered a

nutrient. It is believed to be a neurotransmitter, although it is still

unknown as to whether it exhibits all of the properties required to be

considered one.

GHB was first synthesized about thirty

years ago by Dr. H. Laborit. He was a French researcher interested in exploring

the effects of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain. Over the years

many researchers have studied GHB?s effects. In Europe it is used as a

general anesthetic, a treatment for insomnia and narcolepsy, an aid to

childbirth, a treatment for alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal syndrome

and many other things. During the 1980’s it was available over the counter

for its ability to stimulate growth hormone release which aids in fat reduction

and muscle building. Now it is very popular as a recreational drug due

to its pleasant alcohol-like hangover- free high and strong sexual effects.

Some street terms include Liquid X, Liquid Ecstacy, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous

Bodily Harm, and Scoop. GHB is not approved in the US and has been banned

from over-the-counter sale by the FDA (1990). GHB has not yet been scheduled

as a controlled substance by the DEA, and therefore simple possession is

not illegal. GHB continues to be sold to legitimate laboratories and scientists

for research purposes but selling it specifically for human consumption,

especially while making claims about its health benefits, is a violation

of current FDA regulations and policy. In some European countries, GHB

is an approved drug available by prescription. The Federal control may

have been an act to protect the pharmaceutical industry from competition

from a safer, more effective and less expensive alternative to sleeping


There are many side effects and concerns

associated with this drug. GHB affects the release of dopamine in the brain,

usually causing effects ranging from relaxation to sleep at low doses.

Overall the effect is similar to that of alcohol. The difference is that

duration is slightly longer and the hangover effects are slightly less

and the unpleasant and dangerous overdose effect of possibly causing temporarily

unrousable sleep, or coma, at high doses. The effects of GHB are heavily

affected by one?s body weight, interactions with other chemicals, and individual

reaction. Some people find GHB useful for treating insomnia, others use

it to treat alcoholism. Some use it as a replacement for alcohol. The effects

can be broken down by the dose amount.

Low Dose: .5 to 1.5g

This often causes effects similar to those

of 1-3 drinks of alcohol. At this dosage, the user can fell a mild relaxation,

increased sociability, slightly decreased motor skills, mild dizziness,

and other effects similar to mild alcohol intoxication.

Medium Dose: 1-2.5g

This increases the relaxing effects and

the physical disequilibrium experienced. Some report increased appreciation

for music, dancing, or talking. Many report positive mood changes. There

is some slurring of speech, silliness, and slight incoherency. Some report

increased feelings of nausea and grogginess. There are some reports of

pro-sexual effects, an increase in tactile sensitivity, relaxation, increased

male erectile capacity and heightened experience of orgasm, although some

women report that this is harder to achieve.

Heavy Dose: 2.5g +

A heavy dose can increase feelings of

disequilibrium in many people to the point of feeling very ill. (One reason

the GHB has gained notoriety as a Club Drug is that some people experience

extremely positive feelings on Heavy Doses of GHB.) Reports of euphoria,

feeling music deeply, joyous dancing, and other very positive effects are

common. An extra quarter gram can be the difference between euphoria and


Overdose: can be little as 2g

One major problem with GHB as an underground

recreational substance is that it has a sharp dose-response curve, which

can be difficult to manage with the various non- standard preparations

available to the uninformed buyer. Another major problem is that uninformed

users often mix alcohol with GHB, which drastically increases the chance

of vomiting and unconsciousness.


While many overdoses consist mainly of

heavy sleep, some are life-threatening. GHB Poisonings are characterized

by very low breathing, convulsions, vomiting, being completely non responsive

even to ?deep pain?, fixed pupils, etc.

After Effects:

Some people feel drowsy, sleepy, or groggy

after the effects wear off. The hangover from low and medium doses of GHB

is usually mild or non existent. Some people do report feeling slightly

?fuzzy-headed? the next day. Some also report feeling refreshed, happier,

and more alert the day after use. Using GHB more than once a week can cause

significantly increased negative after effects.

These are the feelings that the user may

experience but it is also important to understand what GHB is doing inside

the body.

GHB temporarily inhibits the release of

dopamine in the brain. This may cause increased dopamine storage and later

increased dopamine release when the GHB influence wears off. This effect

could be the reason why users that awake in the middle of the night is

more common with use of higher GHB doses, and the general feelings of increased

well-being, alertness and arousal the next day. GHB also stimulates pituitary

growth hormone release. It also induces ?remarkable hypotonia? or muscle

relaxation. It is gaining popularity in France and Italy as an aid to childbirth.

It causes a ?spectacular action on the dilation of the cervix,? decreased

anxiety, greater intensity and frequency of uterine contractions, increased

sensitivity to oxytocic drus, preservation of reflexes, a lack of respiratory

depression in the fetus, and protection against fetal cardiac anoxia. GHB

also causes a protein sparing effect which reduces the rate at which proteins

in the body are broken down, which along with the growth hormone, underlies

its common use as an aid to muscle-building and fat loss.

Anesthetic doses of GHB are accompanied

by a small increase in blood sugar levels, and a significant decrease in

cholesterol. Respiration becomes slower and deeper. GHB has been called

an almost ideal sleep inducing substance. Small doses produce relaxation,

tranquility and drowsiness which make it extremely easy to fall asleep

naturally. The primary disadvantage to GHB?s use as a sleep aid is it?s

short term influence, which is about three hours. GHB shows great promise

in the treatment of alcoholism. In Europe, one of its primary uses is to

relieve withdrawal symptoms, cravings, and anxiety among alcoholics.

There are four main prosexual properties


1) disinhibition,

2) heightening of the sense of touch,

3) enhancement of male erectile capacity

4) increased intensity of orgasm

All four together heighten the purpose

of using this drug as a ?date-rape? drug.

GHB is available as an odorless, colorless,

and nearly tasteless liquid. Sometimes it is available as a powder, or

in a capsule.

GHB is obviously a very powerful, dangerous,

and addictive drug. When not taken with care it can result in severe brain

damage, coma, even death. It is not currently illegal to have possession

of the drug, however, it is illegal to sell, buy, or make it. There are

different dosages depending on weight and body of the individual. Its street

terms include Georgia Home Boy, Liquid X, Liquid Ecstacy, Grievous Bodily

Harm, and Scoop. It is often used as a date-rape drug due to its ability

to cause relaxation, decreased motor skills, a short euphoric period, grogginess,

slight incoherence, and physical disequilibrium. With very heavy use, many

people report very serious physical addiction. Stopping suddenly results

in anxiety, inability to sleep, feeling like the heart is arrhythmic, and

often very unpleasant and potentially dangerous effects. Many heavy users

have reported being able to taper off their use to zero by reducing their

intake slowly over 2-3 weeks. Best advice? Don?t try this at home kids.

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