Реферат: The Model Society Essay Research Paper Lisa
The Model Society Essay, Research Paper
Summary of the Model Society
Goals of the Model Society
Chart comparing aspects of different countries
Comparisons between the Model Society and other major societies and theories
Triangle Graph Comparisons
A Utopian society does not exist in any country in the world. The perfect system has not yet been developed. Certainly the United States and the Soviet Union have been two of the most admired systems OF the past, but they to are far from an ideal model of a just society which has been desired by many persons throughout the ages. This just society, is hard to define, nevertheless, this is what I propose.
In the model society, all industry is nationalized and all citizens between the ages of twenty-one and forty-five are required to serve in an industrial army. This industrial army is divided into ten branches of industry, each department being under the control of a lieutenant general. Each lieutenant general is elected by a vote of all the retired members of the department he heads, thus avoiding the undesirable effects of having the workers select their own bosses. The general-in-chief of the army is the President, and all the men in the nation not involved in the industrial army elect him. No wages are paid, but all citizens, be they active or retired, receive an equal share in the national income. At the beginning of each year, every citizen is given a credit card marked off in dollars and cents, and every time he makes a purchase the amount is subtracted from his card. If any surplus is left over at the end of the year, it may be used the following year, or returned to the common fund. In this model society education is free and the old are provided for. And if any man who is capable of working refuses to do so, he may find himself in solitary confinement until he sees the light.
1. The provision of employment for all persons who are able and willing to work.
2. An equal distribution of money and real income among all citizens so that economic and social deprivation will not exist.
3. An increase in the level of real gross national product from year to year so that the standard of living for all citizens continues to rise.
4. An emphasis on the quality as well as the quantity of life.
Full employment is in itself a desirable economic goal. It is the prime function of economy to enable everybody willing and able to work to earn a living, and only a fully employed economy performs this function. Maximum output is desirable given the community??s willingness to work, and here again full employment is a necessary condition.
A more equitable distribution of income is one of the major goals of a model society. The major uncertainties of an industrial society are those of unemployment, premature death or disability, prolonged illness, and old age. These uncertainties can be taken care of through social security programs. It is necessary to provide some minimum standard of living for these families through family allowances, housing subsidies, and free medical care.
An increase in the standard of living depends on the per capita income. Economic growth in this situation requires an increase in the actual output of goods as well as an increase in an economy??s capability to produce goods. That is why this is a fundamental goal of a model society.
To an extent there is a contradiction between economic growth and the quality of the environment. Economic growth often results in smoke and fumes from more cars, litter, and pollution. In the model society emphasis would be placed on those things necessary to the environment.
Although there is no such thing as a utopian society today, there are countries, which appear to have done well in providing the greatest good for the greatest number of people, and others which have done nothing to accomplish this goal. Following is brief synopsis of several different countries or theories as compared to the Model Society.
Sweden is an excellent example of one such country. It displays a willingness and ability to correct problems that arise in its society today. The model society would hope to imitate Sweden in its employment rates, and its lack of poverty. There are however several reasons why Sweden has been able to accomplish this. First of all, it has for the most part avoided involvement in the world wars. Secondly, Sweden is a very homogeneous country, therefore there are no racial problems. Thirdly, the population is relatively small when compared to the landmass, so population pressures are not an issue.
The model society unlike the United States would not implement tax policies that favor the rich over the poor. Instead tax policies would be created so that they could serve to even further equally distribute wealth.
The model society is aware that full employment is a mixed blessing and comes along with rising prices. In order combat inflation the model society would implement a wage drift policy much like that of Sweden in 1969.
?? The Model Society agrees wholeheartedly with Douglass North in his analysis as to why are some nations rich and some poor? North stresses that moral imperfections are by and large ignored in economic analysis. He points out that nations that are morally just usually do better than those that have corrupt governments in charge. North analysis implies that capital and technology will flow to and be accumulated or developed in a just nation. A just economy has high informal cultural institutions that transmit high moral standards and promote self-enforcing agreements, moral restraint, and economic efficiency. The Model Society will be founded on highly moral principles. Stressing the jointness of church and state, and religion in schools. How can we expect the citizens of a country to behave morally if they have not been educated to respect their neighbor?
?? The question of competition arises. How will this country maintain its efficiency when everyone owns everything. The competition will come from outside the country. Trade will be promoted and as other countries can provide a service or product faster or better our country will have to try harder to keep up with them. Also, efficiency will be promoted by competition within the country. Industries that are more efficient will receive more money. Industry heads will be responsible to figure out which plants are working most efficiently
?? The Model Society agrees with Adam Smith, and maintains the fundamental principle that Government influence prohibits wealth.
?? Capitalism- the idea of private ownership of the means of production and the hiring of wage labor in production. Is to be avoided at all costs. There will of course naturally be laborers and there will be others who specialize in different areas. But each person will be given money according to what he needs.
?? Specialization and the exchange of goods and services increase standards of living. Investment in additional capital and improved technology further promote rising standards of living. Transactions costs, however, are a huge barrier to economic exchange. The economic institutions of the Model Society will reduce transactions costs.
?? The Model Society will be based on the prediction that in the future all people will share more equally, and government institutions designed to protect would no longer be necessary
?? The Model Society disagrees with Novak when he states that no traditional or socialist economy will ever produce equality among races or classes. The Model Society will. The Model Society also disagrees with Novak when he states the capitalism offers people not equal results but equal opportunities. How can he pretend that a person born in the slums of a city has the same opportunity to be rich as someone born into wealth.
?? The model society will be unlike America with its problems of pollution and environmental hazard. In America environmental problems far outweigh national efforts to find solutions.
A. courts moving against labor units-defending business
B. after war-nationalization of industry along with
labor movement (1946-79)
C. Thatcher-labor party out of power- (shadow of US
Depression) privatization (post 79)
A. 1930-40- cause of war-nazis take over government which has been given to much power
B. 1950 on ?V Germany tries to break old cartel and
create a competitive market
The Model Society
A perfect balance between business control and
Government control in which the people control everything
When asked to come up with an ideal country I was at first completely baffled. What should my country include? What should my country avoid? And thousands of other questions sprang to mind. So I enlisted the help of several people. I asked them: ??If you could live in an ideal country, what would be one aspect that you think would be absolutely necessary to it, or one thing that you want the country to have no part of???
Here are the results:
?? ??If it is to be a perfect country a socialist economy would be best, no class categorization, everyone is equal?K. Even though there is no way that this would work in the real world. It would be a cooperative society. I think the tribes in Africa have the best idea.?? -Jake Kelly (occupation-student, Houghton College, hometown-Belfast, NY)
?? ??Free Education?? -Ron Slack (occupation-unemployed, hometown-Belfast, NY)
?? ??The ideal country would be America. Communal societies never work, everyone does the least they can do, where as in capitalism, sure there’s greed, but ambition can be a way to virtues, though not a virtue itself.?? -Geoff Hickman (occupation-student, New Jersey Institute of Technology, hometown-Newport, NJ)
?? ??The government would have control of the economy. They would get a percentage of all profits made and use it to run the country. Not communism in its strictest sense. But a place where the government controls things, and takes care of everyone.?? Zachary Fletcher (occupation-student, Grove City, hometown- Harrisburg, PA)
?? ??Everyone would have a job for life.?? Joe Sweet (occupation-electrician, hometown-Belfast, NY)
?? ??People wouldn??t have to worry about who is going to take care of them when they are old.?? Jeremy Finney (occupation-plant worker, hometown-Belfast, NY)
?? ??Less hoarding, and more sharing. I??m sick of everyone being so greedy.?? Kristin Dilmore (occupation-student, Houghton College, hometown-Rochester, NY)
?? ??Everyone getting along with one another. This would mean job security, free health care, and low taxes. When people have to fight in order to get ahead, that is when civil wars break out.?? Jennifer Adams (occupation-student, Houghton College, hometown-Hershey, PA)
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