Реферат: Mysteries Of The Virus Essay Research Paper

Mysteries Of The Virus Essay, Research Paper

Introduction to viruses: For centuries

submicroscopic organisms, also known as viruses,

that grow and multiply at different rates inside of a

cell, have been circulating our planet.1 The cell

produces the various, essential components of the

virus. These components are: 1) DNA or RNA

nucleic acids, which are the genes of the virus.

Viral particles posses either DNA strands or RNA

strands, but never both in contrast bacterial

infections contain both. The amount of DNA/RNA

in a virus changes depending on the type of virus.

2) A protein which is extremely important in a

hazardous virus because is provides a strong,

protective barrier as the virus passes from cell to

cell.2 Viruses do not contain the enzymes and

metabolic pressures needed for self-duplication.

The missing components are taken from the host

cells they infect. Replication begins when the virus

enters the cell. The enzymes remove the coat of

the virus, and the RNA or DNA particles come in

contact with the ribosomes in the cell. The virus

then finds the protein by using the nucleic acid.

Several new RNA or DNA strands are made.

Once the cell has exceeded the maximum number

of strands, it then bursts open and the new

particles find new host cells. The process is then

repeated.3 The following is a list of the many ways

viruses can be classified: 1.) Whether viral

particles contain RNA or DNA strands. In some

cases there are retroviruses. That is when a RNA

virus enters the cell, then converts to a DNA virus.

2.) Whether the genome is single stranded or

double stranded 3.) For single stranded RNA

viruses, the code for a protein could be positive

stranded or negative stranded. 4.) The genome

may be linear or circular and may be in a single

segment or multiple segments. 5.) The size and

overall shape of the virus. 6.) The effects of the

viruses.4 Viruses can directly cause damage to the

cells by seizing the cells metabolic resources

and/or by producing toxic components which

interfere with their normal functions. These viruses

will generally make what is known as a cytopathic

effect (CPE) in tissue culture cells. Viruses can

also cause cells to alter their components making

them targets for anti-cellular viruses such as

AIDS.5 II. An In-Depth view ?Infectious diseases

are the third leading cause of death in the United

States and the leading cause worldwide…? but,

?we only spend 1% of our health-care budget on

prevention,? claims Dr. David Satcher.6 For years

scientists have been complaining about the amount

of government money spent on virus prevention.

Within the past twenty years, more than 30 new

virulent types have been discovered, like Lyme

Disease, Legionnaire?s disease, AIDS, and

Ebola.7 For the past couple of years, scientists

have been fearing ?antibiotic-resistant organisms,?

often called ?killer bacteria.? Diseases that were

once easily eliminated with antibiotics, such as ear

infections or pneumonia, can now outsmart

common drugs. Scientists also state that there is

only one drug to treat some infections. Once a

virus becomes resistant, society will basically have

returned to the preantibiotic age.8 ?Twenty years

ago, many people believed infectious diseases

would be conquered,? recalls Dr.John

Barlett.?Organisms changed, people changed.?9

There are many ways people can protect

themselves from viruses. They can stay inside their

houses all day fearing viruses,10but ?A ship is safe

in the harbor, but that?s not what ships are made

for.?11 The following is a list of ten ways to

prevent infectious diseases without interrupting a

person?s life: 1.) VACCINATE all children,

adults, and pets. 2.) WASH HANDS often,

especially during the cold and flu season. 3.)

PREPARE FOOD carefully, cook it thoroughly.

4.) USE ANTIBIOTICS exactly as your doctor

directs after you have encountered an infectious

disease. 5.) REPORT AN INFECTION that

does not heal to a doctor. 6.) AVOID AREAS

with lots of insects use bug repellent on all

wilderness trips. 7.) BE CAUTIOUS around all

wild or unfamiliar animals. 8.) AVOID UNSAFE,

unprotected sex and intravenous drug use. 9.)

ASK ABOUT DISEASE threats, like hepatitis,

when you travel. 10.) ALLOW YOURSELF

TIME to recover when sick.12 III. Particular

Infectious Diseases in Detail Tuberculosis: Clinical

description: Tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial

infection caused by ?Mycobacterial Tuberculosis?..

This disease is characterized by inflamed tissue

caused by granulomas.13 The disease primarily

affects the lungs, although the intestines and other

parts of the body may become infected.14 Clinical

Case Diagnosis: A positive tuberculin skin test.

Other signs and symptoms compatible with

tuberculosis are abnormal, unstable chest

radiographs, or clinical evidence of current

disease. Treatment with two or more

antituberculosis medications. It is spread mainly by

inhalation, occasionally by ingestion through

contaminated foods and utensils.15 Case

Classification: Confirmed: A case that meets the

clinical diagnosis or is laboratory confirmed.16

Additional Comments: The spread of tuberculosis,

once affecting millions, greatly decreased in the

1970?s. Many countries improved sanitation, early

detection through X-rays, and antituberculosis

drugs.17 A case should not be counted twice

within any 12 month period. However, if the

patient had already acquired the disease, it should

be reported again if the patient had been

discharged from treatment. Mycobacterial

diseases other than those caused by tuberculosis

should not be counted in tuberculosis statistics.18

Malaria: Clinical Description: Malaria, also known

as ?Plasmodium falciparum? is the next infectious

disease that is going to be described. Signs and

symptoms are variable however most patients

experience fever. In addition to fever, common

associated symptoms include, headache, back

pain, loss of appetite, weakness, chills, sweats,

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and cough. Untreated

malaria can lead to coma, renal failure, diarrhea,

and cough.19 Case Diagnosis: Demonstration of

malaria parasites in blood films.20 Case

classification: Confirmed: an episode of

microscopically confirmed malaria parasitemia in

any person diagnosed in the United States,

regardless of whether the person experienced

previous episodes of malaria outside the

country.21 Additional Comments: Indigenous:

Malaria acquired by mosquito transmission in an

area where malaria is a regular occurrence.

Introduced: Malaria acquired by mosquito

transmission from an imported case in an area

where malaria is not a regular occurrence.

Imported: Malaria acquired outside a specific area

(e.g. the U.S. and its territories. Cryptic: An

isolated case of malaria that cannot be linked to

additional cases.22 Brucellosis Clinical

description: An illness distinguished by acute or

insidious outbreak of fever, night sweats, undue

fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, and headache.

Brucellosis is also called Gibraltar fever or the

Mediterranean fever.23 Case Diagnosis: Isolation

of Brucella from a clinical specimen. The patient

could have encountered the disease from outer

American insects. This disease can be cured by

antibiotics spaced out.24 Additional Comments:

Brucellosis is highly a contagious disease, but not

severe with proper treatment. When the patient

once obtains the virus, they produce an anti-body.

This makes an immunity so the person can never

get it again. The same process takes place with

chicken pox.25

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