Реферат: Organism Adaptation Evolution Darwin Essay Research Paper
Organism Adaptation Evolution Darwin Essay, Research Paper
Organism Adaptation Evolution Darwin1)stimulus: a change in the environment that necessities a response, or adjustment by an organism (ex. swirling dust)response: the adjustment or change you make to a stimulus (ex. blinking your eyes)2)Protists respond to a negative stimuli by moving away from it. Protists respond to: light, irritating chemicals, temperature, touch, etc. 3)Yes, they grow towards the stimulus (ex. light). photoropism: it means the organism grows towards the light. nogeotropism: it means the organism grows towards the ground. no4)This is because animals have the most highly developed sensory systems of all organisms. 5)Three factors that affect an organism’s response are the type, number, and complexity of an animal’s sense organs. The way they affect the response is determined by the type, number, and complexity of the animal’s sense organs. 6)positive: food, moneynegative: a man pointing a gun at youneutral: sound of traffic7)In general, organisms go towards positive stimuli, and go away from negative one. 8)voluntary: eating a bowl of hot chicken soupinvoluntary: watering of your mouthlearned: talking9)When an animal receives a scare, it can either Fight, Flight (go away from), Freeze the/from organism that is scaring that animal. The animal releases adrenaline that gives it the strength to do one of those things. pg. 136 #3,4,challenger)3)automatic: i)blinking your eyes when dust gets in them ii)mouth waters when you smell food iii)moving your hand away when it gets burnedvoluntary: i)eat a bowl of soup ii)drink water iii)watching TV4)The stimulus. You need the stimulus to make a response. b)No, it is not possible. This is because with an action, there is a reaction. No, you need a stimuli to make a response, otherwise it is not really a response. 5)i)it comes out of the groundii)it crowsiii)it barks and chases the perpetratoriv)it chases and eats a gazelleb)i)the flooding of its homeii)getting lightiii)the person breaking iniv)its hungerChallengerIt helps to keep the brain and heart from freezing. pg. 146 #1-5)1)i)taste ii)touch iii)sight iv)smell v)hearing2)The protists can only sense chemical. 3)This effect is called sensory adaptation. b)An advantage is that you aren’t bothered by the smell. A disadvantage is if you are accustomed to the smell of smoke, the smell of smoke might not alert you if your house is on fire. b)cone: when it is light outrod: when it is dark outc)They aren’t as developed as some other organisms. 5)Eyelid: this is because your hell cells are very tough from being walked on. This causes them not to be very sensitive. 5-6-1993pg.13 #1-6)1)environment: everything in an organism’s surroundingsbiotic environment: all living things in an environmentabiotic environment: non living things in an environment2)When you breathe, your body extracts oxygen from the air. b) large animal eats smaller animalsmaller animals larger animal dies and eats plants fertilizes ground soil grows plants 3)biology,ecology: they are the study of things on earth; ecology is the study of environment, biology is the study of animalsb)producers,consumers: they live off the environment; pro. manufactures food, con. can’t manufacture other food, but eat other organismsc)scavenger,decomposer: both live of off dead organisms; decom. break down the bodies of dead organismsd)habitat,niche: have to do with were an animal lives hab.=enviro. space were an organism lives, niche = way an organism reacts with its environmente)environment,ecosystem: were organisms live; enviro.= everything in an organism’s surroundings, eco.= were organisms of a distinct group interact4)a)auto b)hetro c) auto d)auto e)auto f)hetro5)biosphere: layer of planet where living things exist and interactb)lithosphere: solid portion of the Earth’s surfacec)hydrosphere: layer of water that covers nearly 3/4 of the Earth’s surfaced)atmosphere: mass of air surrounding the Earth6)The scavengers come and totally eat the carcass. The decomposers decompose the carcass and it fertilizes the ditch. pg. 18 #1-6)1)herbivore: animals that consume only plant material (ex. cattle, sheep)trophic level: how directly a consumer interacts with the producers of its ecosystemfood chain: a feeding sequence in which each kind of organism eats the one below it in the chain (ex. grass -> mouse -> wolf)2)Because the producer provides the food for the consumers. 3)Herbivores, this is because you need the herbivores to feed the carnivores, and if there aren’t enough herbivores, the carnivores will die out. b)Producers, this is because the producers feed the consumers, and consumers will die if there is not enough producers. 4)omnivores,carnivore: they both eat animals; omnivores also eat plantsb)primary,tertiary: they both eat other organisms; primary eats at the first level, and tertiary eats at the third levelc)food chain,food web: they describe feeding sequences; food chain goes from one level to the next, web is interconnecting6)There are six food chains. There are more because the three overlap each other. b)grain, grass, berriesc)deer, mouse, grasshopper, rabbitd)hawk, snake, owl, wolf wolf is the top carnivorepg.36 #1-8)1)environment: everything in an organism’s surroundingsenvironmental interaction: interaction within the environment for food and shelterb)They relate to ecology because the purpose of ecology is to study the environment and environmental interaction. 2)pond water: abiotic: pond water is not aliveb)plant seeds: biotic: seeds are alive because they have the c)ability to growd)fossils: abiotic: this is because fossils are fossilized bones of e)dead animalsf)soil: abiotic: soil is not aliveg)soil organisms: biotic: this is because all organisms are living3)autotroph heterotroph grass grasshopper, salmon seaweed grass snake, starfishb)producer consumer grass grasshopper, salmon seaweed grass snake, starfishc)The autotrophs were also the producers, and the heterotrophs were also the consumers. 4)Decomposers are the heterotrophs because they feed off of dead organisms and organism waste. b)Scavengers are consumers because they feed off of dead organisms. c)Because the scavengers and decomposers get rid of the waste and dead organisms. 5)A dead organism is a part of the abiotic environment because it no longer has life in it. b)First, scavengers come and eat the meat of the dead organism, then a decomposer carries out chemical decomposition. Large, complex molecules of living things are broken down to smaller, simpler molecules. c)If the corpses were indestructible, our roads and yards would be carpeted with dead bodies. 6)habitat: the environmental space in which an organism livesniche: all the ways in which an organism interacts with its biotic and abiotic environmentsb)Grass, plants, and a bison occupy different niches in the same habitat. 7The layer of our planet where living things exist and interact. b)lithosphere: solid portion of the Earth (ex. rocks)hydrosphere: the water portion of the Earth (ex. sea)atmosphere: the air surrounding the Earth (ex. air)c)The zones are different sections were many organisms live, but the ecosystem is a unit of the biosphere in which organisms forming a distinct group interact with each other and with their environment. 8)ecosystem: a unit of the biosphere in which organisms forming a distinct group interact with each other and with their environment (ex. pond)b)Because green plants feed the other organisms in one way or another. c)There would be more plants because they are used to feeding the other animals. 5-13-1993 SensesSight: photoreception – cones and rods – location? – function?Hearing: effects of vibrations in the ear? – choclea? – mechanoreception?Smell: olfaction? – chemoreception? – location of receptorsTaste: location of chemoreceptors – categories or types – how do we taste spicy foodTouch: location of receptors (3 different types) – varying ability – does one receptor in the skin respond to all types of touch, pressure, and pain?Sightphotoreception: direction of light by sensory cellscones: specialized eye cells for bright light and color receptionrods: specialized eye cells for vision at low light levelsRods and cones are located on the retina. Hearing The effects of vibrations in the ear is that the vibrations travel through a series of small bones into a coiled, fluid-filled cone. The vibrating fluid moves the hair cells, nerve impulses are sent to the brain where they are interpreted as sound. cochlea: a fluid-filled cone that helps detect soundmechanoreception: the ability to detect motionSmellolfaction: the sense of smellchemoreception: the ability to detect chemical stimuliThe olfactory receptors are located high in the nasal cavity in a humanTaste The receptors are located in taste buds situated in crevices in the tongue, in humans. Human taste receptors are limited to just four categories: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. You taste spicy foods from the interaction of your sense of smell with these four basic taste. Touch In humans, touch receptors are located in the skin. The three types are Meissner’s corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini corpuscles. There is a variety of touch receptors. They can sense heat, cold, pain, touch, pressure. The ability of touch is different between people. No, different receptors respond to different types of touch, pressure, and pain. Sensory Systems in other Organisms- protists often respond by eating or avoiding like a baby- Euglena have a pigment spot -> sensitive to light- sense organs in organisms can be different from those in humanse.g. dogs, bats, dolphins respond to higher sound frequenciese.g. birds of prey (ex. hawk) have a better sense of visione.g. insects have a better sense of smellCoordinating Responses: Movement and Location3 steps to sense and response:1) sensory receptors2) Organisms must be able to respond ex. move away3) a coordinated system that links sensing and responding -> this is called nervous system 5-14-1993Nervous System- simplest nervous system is found in an organism called the Hydra, a fresh water jelly fish- when the Hydra is touched, it contracts- sensory cells in the Hydra relay the message to neurons that carry the message to muscle cells- in complex animals, groups of neurons from nerves and sensory cells are grouped together to form sensory organs- the central nervous system consists of a nerve chord and a brain- Ganglia are clumps of nerve cells that coordinate nerve
signals in different parts of the bodyThree Types of Neurons1) Sensory neurons: carry signals from the sense receptors2) motor neurons: carry signals to parts of the body (ex. muscle, glands)3) inter neurons: connect sensory neurons to motor neuronsWhen your hand touches a hot kettle, heat receptors in your fingertips detect this. -> sends the message to receptors in your arm-> brain and spinal chord’s inter neurons-> motor neurons -> arm musclesMovement and Locomotion- for protists and animals, responses usually involves some form of movement- all animals are capable of some sort of movement- an animal’s movement is controlled by its nervous system locomotion: movement from one location to another- Most animals have some form of locomotion. Locomotion can be difficult to study because some animals move very quicklyNervous and Locomotory Systems of the Earthworm- earthworms respond to light, touch, moisture, and chemicals- sense receptors are located under the skin- central nervous systems of the earthworm is a double spinal chord- nerve chord is connected to two larger ganglia in the worm’s head – this is the brain- there are smaller ganglia for each segment of the worm’s body 5-18-1993Nervous and Locomotory systems of the Earthworm- continued- Part II- the ganglia enables the earthworm to move each segment independently- earthworm also has 2 sets of muscles -one perpendicular to the other-1) longitudinal muscles: when contracted, the worm becomes shorter and fatter-2) circular muscles: when contracted, the worm becomes thinner and longer- when the worm is moving forward, you can see a wave of motion passing along the body of the worm 5-19-1993Locomotion in other Organisms- different types of locomotion: running, swimming, gliding, jumping, hopping, crawling or pseudopodia (false feet)amoeba- animals have different body parts that aid in locomotion -e.g. spider monkey – tail, kangaroo – hind legs, bat – wingsSensory Systems of Other OrganismsProtists: have chemoreceptors in cell membrane – these receptors can also detect the presence of other organismsEuglena: have a pigment spot: sensitive to light – Euglena can’t see, but it will move towards the light – when there is enough light, the Euglena will perform photosynthesis- different organisms possess sense organs that are more sensitive than those of humans e.g. dogs and bats can detect sounds of higher frequencies birds of prey have a more sensitive sense of vision insects have a more sensitive sense of smellPhotosynthesissunlight + H2O + CO2 -> glucose + O2energy + H2O + CO2 Altering and Adapting to the External Environment- adaptations: features and behaviors that enable an organism to suit or fit its environment e.g. musk oxen of the Canadian Arctic: form protective circle, strong grinding teeth, long digestive tube, thick hairy coat- the environment can alter an organism, and the organism can also alter the environmentExchanging Materials with the Environment- living organisms absorb oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide- land dwellers and aquatic organisms will exchange gasses with their surroundings- land vertebrates have lungs: open sacs inside the body, connected to the outside by a tube- aquatic vertebrate exchange gasses through their gills- as water flows over the gills, dissolved oxygen diffuses into the fish’s bloodstream, and carbon dioxide diffuses out- insects have a system of air tubes called the trachea extending throughout their abdomen. these trachea are connected to spiracles (tiny breathing holes) on the body of the insect- warm-blooded species consume more oxygen than cold-blooded organisms- babies breathe much faster than adult humans- your breathing slows down when you are asleep- hibernating animals breathe very slowlyHow Gas Exchange Alters the Environment- cell respiration occurs in human cells: oxygen + sugar -> carbon dioxide + water + energy- oxygen is supplied by green plants undergoing photosynthesis carbon dioxide + water + light -> sugar + oxygenExchanging Other Materials: Elimination and Excretion- gases are not the only things exchanged with the environment- animals also release liquid and solid wastes into the environment- these are acted upon by micro-organisms such as bacteria that recycle these waste products by using the materials for their own life process- if too man animals congregate in one spot, their waste production may exceed the recycling capacity of the decomposers- in Peru and California, bird droppings are harvestedpg.168 #1-5)1)gas exchange: inside the animal’s body, oxygen from the external environment is exchanged for the waste gas, carbon dioxide2)gills – fish lungs – human trachea – grasshopperb)fish – under water human – everywhere on land grasshopper – in grassy fields and lawns3)The amount of oxygen required by an organism is determined by its size, if its asleep or not, and if its warm or cold blooded. 4)Respiration removes oxygen molecules from the air and replaces them with carbon dioxide molecules or vice versa. b)They are cellular respiration and photosynthesis. c)This is because one uses liquid and solid waste materials in the form of urine, feces, and sweat. They are released by excretion and elimination. 5-20-1993Altering the Environment- every organism alters its environment simply by living in it- the impact of human activities on the environment is sometimes beneficial, but often has unforeseen circumstances- there has been an increase in atmospheric pollution, largely due to the burning of fossil fuels- fossil fuels increase the amount of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere- the amount of carbon dioxide present has increased by more than 30% in the past 100 years. This has produced the Greenhouse Effect. – Acid rain is caused by the mixing of sulfur and nitrogen oxides with water vapors. Greenhouse Effect- carbon from fossil fuels and the tropical rain forest combine with oxygen to produce CO2- the danger results from global warming of the atmosphere- this may affect the ecosystems, and destroy some species which can’t adapt to warmer conditions- Also, icebergs in the Arctic and Antarctic may melt causing coastal flooding- Since sunlight warms the Earth’s surface more than the atmosphere, the surface transfers heat to the atmosphere. This heat is absorbed by gasses such as CO2 in the atmosphere. As the amount of the atmospheric CO2 rises, the amount of heat increases, thereby warming the atmosphere. How Humans Alter the Environment- humans can develop specialized dwelling (e.g. igloos). clothes (e.g. astronauts), and heating and cooling methods that enable them to survive in several different environments- humans can replace fields and forests with highways and cities- however, waste accumulation is a problem – how to dispose of garbage and non biodegradable materialsHow the Environment Alters Humans- there are several differences that make some body features better suited for a particular environment- people with a lot of skin pigment, and therefore darker skin, are protected from sunburns, and this is an advantage in hot areas- at higher altitudes, the environment oxygen levels are lower, and therefore, people with a higher density of oxygen carrying red blood cells are at an advantage, therefore, people living in higher altitudes tend to develop more red blood cellspg.184 #1-6)1)They work as a group, they defend better as a group, and each member of the group has a specific job. 2)inherited variability: this means that you have inherited certain traits from your ancestors, but not everyone in your family has them3)They can inherit structural and behavioral adaptation. b)duck: migration (behavioral), oily back (structural), fly in flocks (behavioral)polar bear: whit (structural), much fat (structural), padded feet (structural)camel: humps (structural), large feet (structural), low body fat (structural)4)It needs other termites to help it feed, breed, and defend itself. 5)caribou: hibernate?geese: fly south for the wintermaple trees: start storing food in its branches and not feeding its leaves6) The knowledge an organism has can help it to live longer and better and to adapt better. 5-21-1993- physiological adaptations are adjustments to environmental change involving a change in body chemistry- however, there are limits to how quickly the human body can alter in response to changes in the external environment- for example, people could never adopt to oxygen levels above 6000mAdapting to Environmental Change- when an organism becomes so specialized, and accustomed to a particular environment factor such as food, or climate then, change in this environmental factor may result in death of that species- insects are most adaptable organisms- some insects (cockroach) have survived almost 300mil. years unaltered- several factors responsible for insects power of survival1)most insects undergo dramatic metamorphoses, as a result, juvenile and adult form eat different food, and survive in different conditions. If one food supply or environment was affected, it wouldn’t destroy the entire population2) insects also reproduce in very large numbers3) short life span, therefore, many generations are produced in a short time, and mutations are quickly passed to the next generation. – if an individual possesses a characteristic that gives it an advantage in the environment, any offspring that inherit that characteristic may have a better chance of survival. After a few generations, the inherited characteristic could be more widespread in the population- peppered moth provides an example of process of adoption- before 1845, most peppered moths had light colored wings with dark markings- however, with industrialization and pollution, city dwellings became darkened from soot and smoke. The bark on trees also became darker. – now light color moth were at a disadvantage and its population deminished- pretty soon, dark color moths outnumbered light ones- a structural adoption is an inner physical feature that increases an organism’s chance of survival e.g. curved talons of on a hawk 5-25-1993- behavioral adaptations: certain actions that increase an organism’s chance of survival- hibernation: state of deep sleep in which an organism can remain without food for weeks or months- before hibernating, the animal eats a lot to accumulate extra fat reserves- during hibernation, the breathing and heart rates slow down significantly- in spring, the hibernating animal wakes up- migration: animals moving to a different location due to an environmental/seasonal change- estivation: some desert animals become dormant in summer when water is scarce e.g. desert frogs, snakes, lizardsAdapting Through Social Structure- social living arrangements make it easier for an animal to find a mate, find food, and avoid danger e.g. bee colony- consists of a queen bee, infertile female worker bees that hunt for food, feed the young, and protect the colony. There are also male bees called drones that solely act as breeder, and they do not work at all. No individual bee can survive on its own because its structural and behavioral adaptations are so specialized.