Реферат: Superstitions Research Essay Research Paper Superstitions Dina

Superstitions Research Essay, Research Paper

Superstitions. Dina Fagoth Language Arts P. 3 / 8th Background A superstition is a traditional belief that a certain action or event can cause or foretell an apparently unrelated event. Superstitions ensure that a person will pass safely from one stage of life to the next. Many of them involve someone taking deliberate action to cause something to happen or to prevent something from occurring. Some superstitions go back almost to the very beginning of human life on Earth. Most of them come from ancient Europe and Egypt. There is no scientific basis for superstitions. Yet, they continually are being passed on from generation to generation. Almost everybody clings on to a few of them. Before bad luck strikes, there are plenty of things, or good luck charms, that can be used to prevent the bad luck. One, which is probably the most common, is a rabbit?s foot. This is because the fast reproduction of the rabbits is considered as wealth. Another good luck charm is the four-leaf clover. It is very unusual to find one in a field of clovers. So whoever found a four leaf clover was thought to be very lucky. The crossing of the fingers, which is probably familiar to all, is supposedly good luck. This is because it is said to trap the evil inside where the fingers cross and prevent them from hurting you. Another sign is the circle by bringing the thumb and forefinger together. The enclosing of a circle with the forefinger and the thumb means everlasting life because a circle has no beginning or end and it is believed to enclose luck. For instance, the wedding ring stands for a long and happy marriage. Knocking on wood is something probably very well known but many people do not understand the meaning of it. Many don?t know where it originated from. The idea of knocking on wood goes back to the early days when people thought gods lived in trees. Thus, when the person knocked on wood they were asking the god-spirit inside to see that luck stays with them. Iron is said to be even luckier than wood. Since it was used for various objects like tools, people thought it was 1endowed with magic. Bent nails and pins are also considered lucky like in the saying: ?See a pin, and pick it up, all the day, you?ll have good luck. ?See a pin, and let it lie, you?ll want a pin before you die.? II. Types Countless activities are involved in superstitions. For example, eating, sleeping, working, playing, marriage, children, sickness, and dying are all part of them. There are also numerous superstitions connected with animals. Sports also include many superstitions, baseball in particular. There are also many in basketball, tennis, golf, horseback riding, and various other sports. Dates and holidays can also be very superstitious. Everybody does a little something to ensure luck when the clock strikes twelve o?clock on New Year?s Day. There are also superstitions about the days of the week. Obviously, there are superstitions for everything in the world. III. Marriage Nobody goes through a wedding day without superstitions. At weddings, shoes would be thrown at the bride and groom and great luck would be 2bestowed upon them if their carriage were hit. Her groom, to establish his authority, would symbolically strike the bride. Brides would throw shoes at the bridesmaids to see who would marry next. The attire is also very important. The bride has many colors to pick from but some are better than others like in the saying:? Married in White, you have chosen right.? Married in Gray, you will go far away.? Married in Black, you will wish yourself back.? Married in Red, you will wish yourself dead.? Married in Green, ashamed to be seen.? Married in Blue, you will always be true.? Married in Pearl, you will live in whirl.? Married in Yellow, ashamed of your fellow.? Married in Pink, your spirit will sink.? Flowers have always been big features in wedding. The groom is supposed to wear a flower that appears in the bridal bouquet. Each flower has it?s own meaning. For example, an orange blossom signifies 3chastity, purity, and loveliness. The red chrysanthemum stands for? I love you?.. There are specific days for matrimony. Sunday was the most popular day for a wedding but many people thought it was improper to be festive on the Sabbath. Today, Saturdays are busiest despite the rhyme:? Monday for health, Tuesday for wealth, Wednesday best of all,? Thursday for losses, Friday for crosses, Saturday for no luck at all.? IV. People There are numerous superstitious connected with humans. Their bodies tell several things about that person. If you just finished combing your hair and you let it blow away and a bird used it to build it?s nest, you will get sores on your head. Let the rain fall on your hair or cut it when the moon is getting bigger if you your hair to grow faster. You might have to be careful with people that are described by the following rhyme:? Trust no man, even your own brother, Whose hair is one color and beard another.? If eyebrows meet, you will be lucky in money matters but never marry. If your front teeth are set wide apart you are lucky in love and traveling. In many parts of the world it is thought that certain people can bring ill luck to other people and animals just by looking at them. This power is called the having the ?evil eye?.. It can cause people to die. The people with green eyes are mostly looked upon with the evil eye because green eyes are not common. To protect yourself from the power, you must never praise yourself or your family. It may also help to wear a blue bead on a string around your neck. Next, come the hands. Count the number of whit specks on your fingernails to see how many lies you have told in the last seven weeks. When cutting your nails, never start with the small nails, go nail by nail to thumb or the other way around, from thumb to little finger. Now come the feet. Those born feet first have the power to heal all kinds of sprains and rheumatism by trampling on the affected part. Be careful with anyone that has a second toe larger than the big toe because people like that are bullies. There are also left and right superstitions. Right ear itching mean someone is saying something nice about you and left ear itching means someone is speaking ill of you. Right ear itching also means you?re going to have a pleasant surprise and left ear itching signifies you are going to have a disappointment. The right palm itching means you have money coming your way and your left palm itching means you will have to pay up money. If you have itchy feet, you are going on journey, and if you have an itchy nose that means you will have an argument. Food can also have several superstitions and some can be very unrealistic. For instance, in order to stay young you have to eat one snake a month at the time of a full moon.? An apple a day keeps the doctor away,? goes the famous saying, but if you don?t rub it you will be challenging the devil. If you get a gift of food, you would return the container with some food in it, because if it is returned empty, you will bring hunger to your house and that of the gift giver. Salt is something very significant. It should never be passed from one person to another. The chances of spilling salt are greater if the salt is passed from hand to hand. It should be placed on the table by one person and picked up by the one asking for it. If spilled, it will bring very bad luck. Many human actions involve superstitions. One that is well known is walking under ladders. This is said to cause 4wretched luck because that would mean you were violating the unity of the family. This is because the ladder forms a triangle meaning the basic family unit: Joseph, Mary, and Jesus in the Christian faith. If you do happen to walk under it, you can change your luck by spitting three times between the rungs. Stumbling or tripping can be very dangerous. It?s a tradition for the grooms to carry their brides over the threshold of their new home because it is a sign that he or she will forget his or her cue or lines. Stage people never say ?good luck? because that would mean bad luck. Instead they say ?break a leg? for good luck. Yawning and sneezing are also things that are very risky. People thought that yawning was caused by the devil whose favorite way of getting into the body was through the mouth. It was once thought that the breath was the soul and by sneezing it could escape the body. Therefore, people say ?God bless you?, or ?health? to protect that person that sneezed. Sneezing was once the fashion in Europe during the 1600s. Men would inhale a little bit of ground-up tobacco through their nostrils to be able to sneeze because it was supposed to ?clear the head?.. They kept their souls by wishing each other ?Gesundheit?.. There is an old rhyme that tells us what days are safe to sneeze and which ones are not:? Sneeze on Monday, sneeze for danger;? Sneeze on Tuesday, kiss a stranger;? Sneeze on Wednesday, get a letter;? Sneeze on Thursday, something better;? Sneeze on Friday, sneeze for sorrow;? Sneeze on Saturday, see your true love tomorrow;? Sneeze on Sunday, your safety seek;? Or the devil will have you the rest of the week.? Friends and enemies are something very meaningful. Never say goodbye to a friend over a bridge because you will never see each other again. Never let an object come between you and a friend while walking together because you will have a quarrel. When three friends are photographed together, the one in the middle will be the first to die. You must always beware of people who never cry because a witch can cry only three tears from the left eye. People who look into their cup while drinking are thieves. Next come the children, babies in specific. A newborn should be held in the arms of the maiden before anyone else. At birth, an infant should be brushed with a rabbit?s foot because it will avert the possibility of an accident to the child. To rock a cradle with the baby not in it is to prognosticate it?s death. When the kids get older, they go to school. When going to school, they should never step on the last crack before you go in or you would fail lessons that day. You should always take a test with the same pencil you used for studying because the pencil will remember the answers. If people were counted, it would put the life of one of them in danger. Instead, you should always count the number of shoes and divide by two. Money is an item that should never be taken for granted. For that reason, take the first money you get each day, kiss it, spit on it, and put it an empty pocket where it will draw more. Touch your money at the sight of a new moon and as moon grows, so will your fortune. Never refuse to give a beggar money, at least a penny, or the beggars misfortune will fall on you or a loved one. If you want to keep your money from being stolen, wash it in rainwater. V. Animals Animals may bring good or back luck. Don?t stand next to a dog during a thunderstorm because they attract lightning. It is good luck if a strange ca t visits your home, but bad luck if it stays. It is also ill luck to have your picture taken with a cat. It is also unlucky to meet a white horse at midday or midnight. In order to protect yourself from harm, you should carry a horse?s hair in your right hand all day long. It is a sign of good fortune if a ladybug lands on a person?s hand or dress, but it must not be brushed off, it must fly away on it?s own. The deeper the ladybug?s color or the more spots, the better the luck. Of course, cat superstitions are one thing everybody knows. Everyone knows that it is bad luck for a black cat to cross your path. On the other hand, in England black cats are considered lucky and white cats are feared. Cats are looked upon as supernatural creatures because people think they have nine lives. The truth is that they have a very flexible spine and are less likely to get hurt in falls or accidents. VI. Sports Many people love sports and there are a few things they can do for good luck. Tennis players shouldn?t hold three balls in one hand while serving or it will bring bad luck. Golfers should only tee off when the ball is placed with trade name or number up or the hole will be lost. Basketball players believe that if you make the last basket during warm-ups, you will do well in the game but others think that you will not do good in a game if you make the last basket. People who fish don?t count the number of fish they have caught because they don?t catch anymore. Baseball, out of the many sports, has the most superstitions. Players should stand in the batter?s box for good luck because spirits cannot hurt you if you are standing in a circle and this comes from the days when the sun was worshipped. They will also spit on the end of a bat or stick a piece of gum on the lower end of the bat for good luck. A ballplayer coming off the field should always lay his glove in the same place for luck in hitting. There are many more but these are some of the most important ones. VII. Dates Holidays, New Years in specific, have many superstitions. On New Years Eve when the clock strikes twelve midnight, people say what you are doing is very influential for the new year. Thus, you will find people walking up and down the street with a piece of luggage so their year brings traveling. One tradition that is very popular is the eating of twelve grapes. This is to ensure good luck for each of the twelve months in the upcoming year. There are many things that will be lucky or unlucky, depending on the day that you do them. Friday the 13th is very known. It is unlucky because just Fridays are supposed to be unlucky and that plus the number 13, the unluckiest number of them all, make it even worse. For Saturday, it is the worse day to hire someone because they will not stay long. Thursdays are supposed to have one lucky hour, the hour before the sunrises. There are some unlucky and lucky numbers. Three is considered one of the most luckiest numbers because many things come in threes. For instance, time is divided into past, present and future. A day is divided into morning, noon, and night. And as for the primary colors there are three: red, yellow, and blue. Even numbers are in general unlucky. All the odd numbers under ten are lucky. However, the number thirteen is said to have very bad luck, but there are some good things connected with it. The U.S flag has thirteen stripes and there are thirteen doughnuts, rolls, or cookies in a baker?s dozen. Superstitions have been for a very long time. They can help us move safely through life if we listen to them. Yet, some people think they are very silly and that they don?t make sense. There are even anti-superstition committees trying to prove that they don?t exist. Many are very unrealistic and sound like they are not true… or are they? Bibliography Brown, Zachary ?Superstitions? Outcasts Magazine, (May 1994) Canfield, Kimberly? Out of the Minds?, Atlantic, Georgia Popular Entertainment, 1997. Carter, Jane ?Great Superstitions? Penguin Group, 1998 Clifford, Mike The Superstition Encyclopedia Published by Harmony books a division Crown Publishers in 201 East 50th Street N.Y., N.Y 10020. Copyright 1988 Pg.74 Hardy, Phil and Dave Laing. Encyclopedia of Superstition. A division of Macmillan, Inc. New York, N.Y. Pg 187. outworld.yahoo.com wonders.aol.com/heykcsb/ index.htm www. secrets.com www.superstitions.yahoo.com Pareles, John and Patricia Romanaowski. Superstitions. A division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. New York, New York 10020 1983 pg.214 Microsoft Works for Windows 95 (1995). [Encarta 97]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.

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