Реферат: History Project Essay Research Paper Need a

History Project Essay, Research Paper

Need a Term Paper? Don’t Miss This Site! Analysis of Karl Marx and Communism Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in the city of Trier in Prussia, now, Germany. He was one of seven children of Jewish Parents. His father was fairly liberal, taking part in demonstrations for a constitution for Prussia and reading such authors as Voltaire and Kant, known for their social commentary. His mother, Henrietta, was originally from Holland and never became a German at heart, not even learning to speak the language properly. Shortly before Karl Marx was born, his father converted the family to the Evangelical Established Church, Karl being baptized at the age of six.Marx attended high school in his home town (1830-1835) where several teachers and pupils were under suspicion of harboring liberal ideals. Marx himself seemed to be a devoted Christian with a longing for self-sacrifice on behalf of humanity. In October of 1835, he started attendance at the University of Bonn, enrolling in non-socialistic-related classes like Greek and Roman mythology and the history of art. During this time, he spent a day in jail for being drunk and disorderly-the only imprisonment he suffered in the course of his life. The student culture at Bonn included, as a major part, being politically rebellious and Marx was involved, presiding over the Tavern Club and joining a club for poets that included some politically active students. However, he left Bonn after a year and enrolled at the University of Berlin to study law and philosophy.Marx s experience in Berlin was crucial to his introduction to Hegel s philosophy and to his adherence to the Young Hegelians. Hegel s philosophy was crucial to the development of his own ideas and theories. Upon his first introduction to Hegel s beliefs, Marx felt a repugnance and wrote his father that when he felt sick, it was partially from intense vexation at having to make an idol of a view [he] detested. The Hegelian doctrines exerted considerable pressure in the revolutionary student culture that Marx was immersed in, however, and Marx eventually joined a society called the Doctor Club, involved mainly in the new literary and philosophical movement who s chief figure was Bruno Bauer, a lecturer in theology who thought that the Gospels were not a record of History but that they came from human fantasies arising from man s emotional needs and he also hypothesized that Jesus had not existed as a person. Bauer was later dismissed from his position by the Prussian government. By 1841, Marx s studies were lacking and, at the suggestion of a friend, he

submitted a doctoral dissertation to the university at Jena, known for having lax acceptance requirements. Unsurprisingly, he got in, and finally received his degree in 1841. His thesis analyzed in a Hegelian fashion the difference between the natural philosophies of Democritus and Epicurus using his knowledge of mythology and the myth of Prometheus in his chains. In October of 1842, Marx became the editor of the paper Rheinische Zeitung, and, as the editor, wrote editorials on socio-economic issues such as poverty, etc. During this time, he found that his Hegelian philosophy was of little use and he separated himself from his young Hegelian friends who only shocked the bourgeois to make up their social activity. Marx helped the paper to succeed and it almost became the leading journal in Prussia. However, the Prussian government suspended it because of pressures from the government of Russia. So, Marx went to Paris to study French Communism. In June of 1843, he was married to Jenny Von Westphalen, an attractive girl, four years older than Marx, who came from a prestigious family of both military and administrative distinction. Although many of the members of the Von Westphalen family were opposed to the marriage, Jenny s father favored Marx. In Paris, Marx became acquainted with the Communistic views of French workmen. Although he thought that the ideas of the workmen were utterly crude and unintelligent, he admired their camaraderie. He later wrote an article entitled Toward the Critique of the Hegelian Philosophy of Right from which comes the famous quote that religion is the opium of the people. Once again, the Prussian government interfered with Marx and he was expelled from France. He left for Brussels, Belgium, and, in 1845, renounced his Prussian nationality. During the next two years in Brussels, the lifelong collaboration with Engels deepened further. He and Marx, sharing the same views, pooled their intellectual resources and published The Holy Family, a criticism of the Hegelian idealism of Bruno Bauer. In their next work, they demonstrated their materialistic conception of history but the book found no publisher and remained unknown during its author s lifetimes. It is during his years in Brussels that Marx really developed his views and established his intellectual standing. From December of 1847 to January of 1848, Engels and Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto, a document outlining 10 immediate measures towards Communism, ranging from a progressive income tax and the abolition of inheritances to free education for all children. When the Revolution erupted in Europe in 1848, Marx was invited

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