Реферат: How Are Children With Learning Disabilities Being
How Are Children With Learning Disabilities Being Helped? Essay, Research Paper
Read the literature attached and answer these questions:
1. Define the term “learning disability”.The federal government defines learning disabilities in Public Law 94-142, as amended by Public Law 101-476 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Ad-IDEA): Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, or mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
2. What is the difference between a learning disability and a learning difficulty?
Individuals with learning difficulties may appear to possess the characteristics of a person with learning disabilities. However, it is only when those learning difficulties are so pervasive or severe that they markedly interfere with learning or day-to-day living that a learning disability is suspected. Careful assessment by a multi disciplinary team that utilizes a variety of standardized instruments, informal tasks, and observation is an important part of verifying the existence of learning disabilities.
3. Why do some learning disabilities not show up until high school?
A student with a high-average or superior intellectual level may maintain grade level performance in elementary school, but develop academic problems in higher grades. Some professionals feel baffled because if a child doesn’t show early academic problems, it seems unlikely that LD is the reason for later problems. Other professionals suggest that a capable student may develop sufficient compensations in the easy school years to make acceptable grades, but become unable to manage when faced with the note taking, longer reading assignments, foreign language requirements, and similar demands in secondary and post-secondary schools.
4. List 10 ways that learning disabilities may show up in an older student.
– weak grasp of explanations- weak cumulative memory
– foreign language problems- slow work pace
– poor written expression- memory problems due to weak
– trouble summarizing attention
– trouble studying for tests- mental fatigue
– failure to elaborate
5. From the Fact Sheet, choose and write down the one fact (statistic) that you find the most compelling.I find the fact that 10% of Ontario’s population has learning disabilities the most compelling.
6. Can you think of someone in your Peer Tutor class who might have a learning disability? (No answer needed)
No I can not.
7. List 2 ways we can help learning disabled students. Be specific to your class and subject area.One way to help a learning disabled student in my grade nine gym class is to give the student more individual attention. Another way is to maintain my composer when dealing with the student’s hyperactivity (remember it is not the student’s fault).
8. ADD. What is it? How is it diagnosed? What kinds of problems can arise if serious ADD problems are ignored? List 4 recommendations for teaching students with ADD that would be most valuable in your subject area.
Attention Deficit Disorder is a syndrome which is characterized by serious and persistent difficulties in three specific areas:
1. Attention span
2. Impulse control
3. Hyperactivity (sometimes)
ADD is a chronic disorder which can begin in infancy and can extend throughout adulthood while having negative effects on a child’s life at home, school, and within his/her community. It is conservatively estimated that 3-5% of our school age population is affected by ADD, a condition which previously fell under the heading of “learning disabled”, “brain damaged”, “hyper kinetic”, or “hyperactive”. However, the newer term, attention deficit disorder, was introduced to more clearly describe the characteristics of these children. There are two types of attention deficit disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Undifferentiated Attention Deficit Disorder.
Students who have exhibited the characteristics of ADD for longer than six months may be at risk for having an attention deficit disorder. However, a diagnosis of attention deficit should only be made after ruling out other factors related to medical, emotional or environmental variables which could cause serious symptoms. Therefore, physicians, psychologists, and educators often conduct a multi-disciplinary evaluation of the child including medical studies, psychological and educational testing, speech and language assessment, neurological evaluation, and behavioral rating scales completed by the child’s parents and teachers.
“Hyperactivity with ADD, without treatment, often results in failure, rejection by peers and family turmoil, all of which can lead to developmental delays and psychiatric complications stemming from low self-esteem and frustration” – Jerry M. Weiner, M.D., Pres. Amer. Academy of Ch. & Adol. Psychiatry
Without treatment, ADD can lead to poor social adjustment, behavioral problems, school failure, drop-out and delinquency and drug abuse.
– Make directions clear and concise.
– Simplify complex instructions.
– Make sure ADD students comprehends before beginning tasks.
– Repeat in a calm, positive manner, if needed.