Реферат: Thirteen Colonies Essay Research Paper Do you

Thirteen Colonies Essay, Research Paper

Do you know about the founding of the thirteen colonies? Well today I am

going to tell you about when, how, who, why, and where the thirteen colonies

were established. So read on to find out some new things.


Roanoke was the last of Sir Walter Raliegh’s attempt to establish a colony.

Although, the idea did come up again in 1606. In 1607 105 London

Company-sponsored settlers arrived in Jamestown from England. The first year was

horrible for the colonists, with only thirty-two colonists living through the

winter. After supplies and new settlers came, and they learned how to grow their

own crops, the colony slowly began to grow. Virginia was saved by tobacco.

New York

England had to clumps of colonies In 1660, it is now the United States. In

between the English colonies the Dutch controlled, some lands. In 1624 some


Merchants had formed a company to trade with the Americas is being called the

Dutch West India company. Their post was along the Hudson River. It grew into

the colony New Netherland. New Amsterdam was the main settlement of the New

Netherland. In 1626 the Dutch West India Company bought Manhattan from the

manhates people. To increase the number of settlers the company sent over

families from the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Finland, anyone who brought

at least fifty settlers got a big estate. New Netherland boasted a great harbor

and thriving river trade. The English wanted to have the valuable Dutch colony,

so in 1664 the English sent a fleet to attack New Amsterdam During that time

Peter Stuyvesant ruled the colony as governor. When the English ships came to

attack, the governor was not ready for war and surrendered the colony. King

Charles II gave the colony to his brother Duke of York. Who then renamed it to

New York.


In the early 1600s Protestants who wanted to reform the Anglican Church were

called Puritans. Those who didn’t want to reform the Anglican Church and wanted

to leave and found their own churches were Separatists. The Separatists were

persecuted in England and so some went to the Netherlands. Though they were safe

there, they still had trouble, they had a hard time finding work. So some

Separatists made an agreement with the Virginia Company, to settle there and in

return they would give them a bit of their profit they make. In September of

1620 one hundred and thirty-two passengers boarded the Mayflower. The passengers

had planed to settle in the Virginia colony. Since the winter was coming, the

first land they saw was Cape Cod, so the colonists agreed upon to drop an anchor

in the Cape Cod Bay. They went ashore at a place called Plymouth. William

Bradford was their leader, and he said «all things stared upon them with a

weather beaten face». The Plymouth was outdoor the area of Virginia Company

and its laws. To provide the new colony, the pilgrims made up a document called

the Mayflower Compact.


Maryland was just a fantasy for Sir George Calvert. He wanted to establish a

safe place for his fellow Catholics, who were being persecuted in England. He

wanted the colony to bring him fortune too. Calvert’s Fantasy came true in 1632.

King Charles’ I gave him a colony north of Virginia. Sadly though, Sir George

Calvert died before his dream was granted. So his son Cecilius Calvert took

charge of the colony. Then it was named after Henrietta Maria, the English

Queen, they called it Maryland. The young Calvert never lived in Maryland

though, but he did send two of his brothers to run the colony. Since tobacco

saved Virginia, Maryland colonists went straight to tobacco farming. They also

planted crops to feed their families and workers. In 1728 Baltimore was founded.

Soon after that Baltimore became Maryland’s biggest settlement.

Rhode Island

Roger Williams, a minister, was banished from Massachusetts in 1635. He was

banished because he felt that people should be free to follow any religious

practice they wanted. William also believed that it was wrong for settlers to

take land away from the Native Americans. Roger Williams left Massachusetts in a

hurry, so they wouldn’t send him back to England. William bought land on

Narragansett Bay, where he later providence. In 1644 he got a charter for a

colony East of Connecticut called Rhode Island. It soon became a secure place

for dissenters. Rhode Island was the first place in America where people of all

faiths could worship freely.

New Hampshire

Other people followed Roger Williams, making colonies where they could

worship what they wanted freely. In 1638 John Wheelwright led a congregation of

people from Massachusetts to the north. There they founded a town of Exeter in

New Hampshire. The same year, a group of Puritans settled Hampton. The colony of

New Hampshire turned completely independent of Massachusetts in 1679.


South of Massachusetts was the fertile Connecticut River Valley, where it was

a lot better for farming compared to the rocky soil around Boston. In the 1630s

colonists started settling in this area. Tomas Hooker, a Minister, started

becoming disappointed with Massachusetts. He wasn’t happy with the way Winthrop

and the other Puritans ran the colony. He also heard about the excellent

farmland. In 1636 Tomas Hooker accompany his group to Connecticut, where he

founded the city Hartford. Three years after that Hartford, Windsor, and

Wethersfield agreed to form a colony. They made the Fundamental Orders of



In 1631 the first settlement was attempted in Delaware by Dutch traders. In

1638 Peter Minuet led a group of Swedish settlers to the Delaware River. The

Dutch gained control of the land in 1655 from the Delaware after defeating the

Dutch. In 1682 Delaware was given to William Penn but his control didn’t last.

In 1701 Delaware became independent.

The Carolina’s

At first it was just called Carolina which means «Charles land’ in

Latin. The king gave it to a group of eight prominent members of his court. They

thought they would make a profit be selling and renting land to settlers. The

settlers began coming in 1670. In 1680 they founded a city called Charleston.

John Locke, an English philosopher wrote a constitution for the Carolina Colony.

The Constitution went over social ranking and land distribution, but it didn’t

go according to plan. The people of northern and southern Carolina went their

separate ways, creating two colonies, North Carolina and South Carolina.


In 1680 William Penn, a wealthy man, introduced a plan to King Charles.

Penn’s father had lent a lot of money to the king. So instead of money William

Penn wanted land in America. The king was pleased to get rid of his debt, gave

Penn a tract of land stretching inland from Delaware River. The new colony name

Pennsylvania was as huge as England. To encourage settlers to come to

Pennsylvania William Penn advertised pamphlets in several languages. In 1681 it

became a royal colony.

New Jersey

The Duke of York gave the southern part of his colony to Sir Lord Berkeley

and Sir George Carteret. They named it New Jersey after the island of Jersey,

where Carteret was born. They had hoped to make some money from New Jersey, by

charging the settlers rent. So to interest settlers, they advanced big tracts of

land and beneficent terms. They also promised freedom of religion,

representative assembly, and a trail by jury. New York and New Jersey were alike

in some ways, and they both were places of ethic and religious variety. Since

New Jersey had no harbors, it didn’t form a major port or city like New York.

Sir Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret didn’t make the money they thought

they would make from rents. So then Berkeley sold his share of West Jersey in

1674. Carteret’s share was auctioned in 1680. Then in 1702 New Jersey was then

ruled by a king, becoming a royal colony.


In 1733Georgia was founded. Georgia was one of the last British colonies in

America to be established. A group led by General James Oglethorpe, got a

charter to make a colony where English debtors and poor people could make a

fresh start. The British government wanted to create Georgia so the colony could

protect the other British colonies from the Spanish attack.

So in conclusion I hoped you learned a few new things about how the colonies

were established. If not then I hope, you enjoy my report. Thank you for reading


еще рефераты
Еще работы по на английском языке